Since the 1960s, Algeria has experienced a rapid demographic growth that led to a significant increase in the demand of milk and meat products. In order to secure supply, specific policies were implemented by government. These policies consisted mainly in the establishment of a milk and meat industry. This paper draws an analysis of the milk and red meat sectors in Algeria with the milk consumption need estimated at over 3.8 billion liters per year (110 liters per capita per year). However, the level of milk collection remains low; nearly 25%, relative to the potential of national production, estimated at over 2.5 billion liters of raw milk per year for a herd of approximately one million dairy cows. On the other hand, red meat consumption needs are estimated at over 370,000 tons per year (20 kg per capita per year. While more than 330,000 cattle were slaughtered locally for food to a total of nearly 120,000 tons. Approximately 9,000,000 head of sheep produced locally were slaughtered for food, totaling 200,000 tons from sheep alone giving a total of 320,000 tons produced locally. The deficit of 50,000 tons is covered by meat importation. This paper recommends specific issues related to the development of the dairy and meat sector in Algeria.