Research Article - (2021)Volume 11, Issue 3
Modern world adopting the new and fast techniques of agriculture methods for the maximum number of the production. The present study is based on an acute toxicity in human health of raw and cooked “Tomato” and “Spinach”. The Plant toxins are commonly the metabolites produce through plants to protect themselves against different threats like insects, predators and microorganisms. These toxins found in food plants are due to natural or new reproduction methods which enhance defensive mechanism. . Natural toxins are present in numerous types of plants and these are ingested as food and when consumed in large quantity and not cook properly leads to food poisoning. These toxic substances when ingested can be potentially harmful to human health. The changing gases of atmosphere at different level of temperature caused spoilage in Tomato and Spinach and these products eaten by human caused food poisoning. These toxic substance are dangerous which lead ingested can be potentially harmful to human health
Tomato; Spinach; Toxicity; Human health.
Tomato (raw) ( Solanum lycopersicum)
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) belongs to the genus Lycopersicon under Solanaceae family. Tomato is a herbaceous sprawling plant growing to 1-3 m in height with weak woody stem. The flowers are yellow in colour and the fruits of cultivated varieties vary in size from cherry tomatoes, about 1-2 cm in size to beefsteak tomatoes, about 10 cm or more in diameter. Tomatoes grow best when the daytime temperature is between 65 and 85 degrees Fahrenheit. They stop growing above 95 degrees Fahrenheit .
Tomatoes are the major dietary source of the antioxidant lycopene, which has been linked to many health benefits, including reduced risk of heart disease and cancer. They are also a great source of vitamin C, potassium, folate, and vitamin K. The water content of tomatoes is around 95%. The other 5% consists mainly of carbohydrates and fiber. Tomatoes are rich in carotenoids, which are basically the phytochemicals that protect plants against sun rays which further induce free radicals .
Raw tomato are consume hardly 1 to 5 days in normal condition which are eaten by human. After 5 days raw tomato are going to decay which are harmful to human beings. Solanines and chaconine natural toxin in tomato. Raw tomato are very harmful during heavy eaten causes acidity, burning of chest and seed of tomato are not properly digested and caused renal stone in kidney .
Tomato are boiled are called cooked tomato. During boil of tomato vitamin C are destroyed. There peel are very smooth and easy to press and make sope for improve the immunity. A good source of lycopene, the phytochemical which makes them red but which also has significant antioxidant properties. The cooked tomato are easily decay and smell within 8 to 12 hours in normal condition and its does not suitable to eat due to microbial growth .
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is a leafy green flowering plant native to central and western Asia. It is of the order Caryophyllales, family Amaranthaceae, sub family Chenopodioideae. It is an annual plant (rarely biennial), growing as tall as 30 cm (1 ft). Spinach may overwinter in temperate regions. Raw spinach is great in salads and sandwiches.
Spinach is rich in vitamins A, C and K, magnesium, iron and manganese. Vegetarian Times writes that folate, vitamin C, niacin, riboflavin, and potassium are more available in raw spinach when it is eaten raw is a cool weather crop that grows best when daytime temperature remain consistently below 75°Fcommonly in spring or fall .
The spinach are consume 4 to 6 day in normal condition after that they fade and the color of leaf starts falling and the are not to be used for eating such as salad etc. Consume too much and you may be in for unpleasant symptoms such as kidney stones, abdominal pain, low blood pressure, tremors or convulsions, vomiting, and weak pulse.
The water of spinach are formed during boiling is very useful for body which contain vitamin e and folic acid which are improve to maintaining the body skin and sexual hormones. After cooked spinach are consumed 7 to 12 hour for eating and after that these are not suitable to eat due to microbial attack and spinach are bitter in taste while white in color.
Classification of plant toxin
Some of the organic compounds containing nitrogen in heterocyclic ring, basic in nature and from amino acid, most of which exhibit strong physiological activity. The glycoalkaloid toxicity is its acute toxicity which causes of human poisoning due to the ingestion of greened damage or sprouted potatoes as a consequence of high level of glycoalkaloid that is solanine .
Solanines and chaconine
The family of solanacea plant such as tomato, potato, eggplant contain natural toxin called solanines and chaconine which are glycoalkoids. This causes bitter tasting in potato and green parts of as well as green tomato.
Wild mushrooms may contain several toxins such as muscimol and muscarine, which can caused diarrhea, vomiting, confusion visual disturbances and hallucinations. Onset of symptoms occurs 6-24 hours or more after ingestion of mushroom .
Toxicological effect of plant toxins
Common case of Phyto allergy are timothy grass, birch, hazel caused Hay fever due to pollen. The eating of strawberries and allergy to peanuts resulting Urticarial and some other recognized allergy condition due to phytoconstituents.
Food poisoning caused by plant toxin due to consumption of food such as partially cooked, some cultivars of tomato and potato and ingestion of herbs selected from the wild not desire for human use such as poisonous berries and mushroom .
The present study will be experimental research design. This will be conducted in Nutritional Laboratory of department of Food science and Technology, school for Home science, BBAU, Lucknow for a period of July 2018 to May 2019. The nutritional analysis will be conducted in analysis laboratory of RFRAC (Regional Food Research and Analysis Center) situated in Lucknow (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Observation of spoilage of tomato after 14 days.
The problem here is that this exchange also leads to the building up of microbial activity which contributes to the spoilage of the vegetables. Which is where the silver nanoparticles come in.
Silver nanoparticles can promote good antimicrobial activity, but the nanoparticle colloids tend to form aggregates and hinder the process of the antimicrobial activity.
Its have more toxicity and its texture is totally bad.
Aroma smell is totally bad and contain toxin water from it.
The observation of cooked tomato in hours 7 hours, 24 hours (1 day) and 48 hours (2 days) at room temperature (Figure 2).
Figure 2: Observation of spoilage of spinach after 14 days.
The leaf are shrink.
Leaf of all water are dehydrated.
Totally turn into blue with yellow in color.
The compression between raw and cooked, tomato and spinach based on toxicity, enzyme activation, growth microbial organism and healthy fresh to eaten by human (Figure 3).
Figure 3: The graphical representation of raw tomato.
A phase has a positive acceleration there is no activation of any enzymes and fresh to eatable, more in nutritious, and no harmful effect in human health
B phase has an exponential phase of increasing toxin level which causes number of disease.
C phase has negative acceleration and number of microorganism grow which damage the nutrition property of tomato and the tomato is completely spoiled. If it will consumed by human it will be dangerous for their health (Figure 4) .
Figure 4: The graphical representation of raw spinach.
A phase has a positive acceleration there is no activation of any enzymes and fresh to eatable, more in nutritious, and no harmful effect in human health.
B phase has an exponential phase of increasing toxin level which causes number of disease.
C phase is of negative acceleration and number of microorganism grows which damage the nutrition property of tomato and the tomato is completely spoiled. If it will consumed by human it will be dangerous for their health.
Plant toxins are found widely in edible plants; apart from harmful effect, these also have nutritious and beneficial to health. These substances may be alkaloid, glycoside, proteins, tannins. These toxins are problem in correlation with different diseases, and they may be a risk as bioterror weapons. Still, it serves as superb tools to study cellular and other mechanisms, and enhanced knowledge about the plant toxins may give us new products for use.
Citation: : Sharma D, Mishra S (2021) An Acute Toxicity in Human Health of Raw and Cooked Vegetable in Tomato and Spinach. J Nutr Food Sci. 11: 796.
Received: 03-Mar-2021 Accepted: 17-Mar-2021 Published: 24-Mar-2021 , DOI: 10.35248/2155-9600.21.11.1000796
Copyright: © 2021 Sharma D, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Sources of funding : None