Journal of Psychology & Psychotherapy

Journal of Psychology & Psychotherapy
Open Access

ISSN: 2161-0487


Umair Ghani

Umair Ghani


  • Review Article
    Hasad (Malicious Envy) and Ghibtah (Descent Envy): History, Culture and Philosophy
    Author(s): Iqbal Akhtar Khan and Umair GhaniIqbal Akhtar Khan and Umair Ghani

    Hasad, an Arabic word, comes from Ha-sa-da which is ‘to dislike that someone should possess a blessing and/or happiness and to want that blessing and/or happiness to be removed from that individual and/or be transferred from him to oneself’. Its widely accepted substitute, in English, is ‘Envy’. The origin of Hasad can arguably be traced to social comparison, usually of “Aristotle’s Potters against Potters” pattern. The classification into malicious envy and Ghibtah (descent envy) is based on the focus of the envier (Subject) on the ‘Rival’ or the ‘good’, respectively. The focus on the ‘Rival’ is the outcome of negative emotions which give rise to destructive energy, culminating in deleterious consequences for the ‘Subject’, ‘pulling him further down’. This morally reproachable approa.. Read More»
    DOI: 10.4172/2161-0487.1000337

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