Chemical residues which could contaminants cow milk are chlorinated pesticides, organophosphates, herbicides, fungicides, antihelminthetic drugs, antibiotic, hormones, detergents and disinfectants, nitrites, poly chlorinated, poly brominated biphenyles, dioxins, mycotoxins, heavy metals and somatotropin hormone. Antibiotics such as betalactams, tetracycline, amino glycosides (e.g. streptomycin, neomycin and gentamycin), macrolides (e.g. erythromycin) and sulfonamides are the source of residues. Because of the public health significance, milk and milk products contaminated with antibiotics beyond a given residue levels, considered unfit for human consumption. Problems associated with antibiotic residues in milk include the risk of allergic reactions and occurrence of antibioticresistant bacteria, teratogenicity risk to the foetus, hypoplasia in developing teeth, aplasia of bone marrow, chronic insidious intake lead to elevated cancer risk and disruption of body’s reproductive, immune, endocrine and nervous system. Organochlorine pesticides are substances containing contaminants classes: The dichlorodiphenylethanes, the chlorinated cyclodienes (aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, etc.), and the hexachlorocyclohexanes (lindane). The most common effects of the wide spread of organochlorine compounds in the environment are birth defects, neurological effects, behavioral effects, reproductive effects and cancer. The occurrence of chemical residues in the milk of lactating cows is a matter of public health concern, since dairy products are widely consumed by infants, children and many adults throughout the world. Governments have responsibility for making regulations to protect consumers against harm arising from chemical in food. The regulation of illegal residues in foods is a cooperative effort of Food Safety and Inspection Services, Feed and Drug Administration and Environmental Protection Agency. However, in Ethiopia not yet attention given regarding to set standards, control measures and monitoring program of chemical residues in animal originated foodstuff.