Background: The association between mushroom consumption and nutrient intake or diet quality has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between these variables in a nationally representative sample of adults. Methods: Dietary intake was determined using a 24-hour recall on adult 19+ year (N=24,807) participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010. Mushroom consumption was defined in two ways: 1) intake of food codes (n=281) including mushrooms and 2) intake of food codes (n=32) designated as “mushrooms”. Sample weighted, covariate-adjusted least square means ± SE were determined and compared using t-tests (p<0.01). Diet quality was calculated using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI). Results: For consumer definitions 1 and 2, respectively: among consumers, mushroom consumption was 20.6 ± 0.75 g/d (n=2,399) and 39.5 ± 2.6 g/d (n=460). For definition 1: mushroom consumers had higher (p<0.01) intakes of energy, protein, thiamin, niacin, folate, copper, selenium, and sodium, and lower intakes of total and added sugars. HEI-2005 was higher among consumers 52.4 ± 0.4 v 51.3 ± 0.2. For definition 2: mushroom consumers had higher (p<0.01) intakes of protein, fiber, vitamin E, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, total choline, copper, potassium, selenium, and sodium than non-consumers. Mushroom consumers had lower (p<0.01) intakes of added sugars and a higher (p<0.01) total HEI-2005 score (54.6 ± 0.9 v 51.4 ± 0.2) than non-consumers. Conclusions: Mushroom consumption was positively associated with higher intake of many nutrients, but lower intake of some nutrients to limit and better diet quality; health professionals should encourage the addition of mushrooms to the diet, especially in ways that are prepared with lower levels of sodium.