The general public’s view of modern diet and human health has undergone drastic changes in recent years. There is general harmony that many chronic health problems, first noted in Western countries but progressively flourished worldwide, relate mainly to diet. There is far less consensus, however, about the dietary factors implicated in such health problems. This lack of understanding has opened the door to a propagation of different recommendations as to the best diet for modern humans. Let me note that all human alive today are member of the same species, Homo sapiens, and as such, all are fully “modern” humans. Dietary fats are a key example. Since the anti-fat health education initiatives of the 1980’s and early 1990’s, certain dietary fats have been increasingly recognized as actually beneficial to health. Diet conscious like the mainstream populace, are now getting the message that wise dietary fat choices offer essential fatty acids, blood lipid management, maintained endocrine and immune function, inflammation control, metabolic effects and even potential body composition and performance benefits. Toward this end, many companies now sell specialty dietary fat supplements and recognized health authorities have begun recommending them to certain population. Increasingly, the average consumer has come to regard the supermarket as obstacle of conflicting and potentially dangerous dietary decisions: low fat, high fat, no fat; no meat, less fatty meat; no eggs, one egg a week, unlimited eggs; less carbohydrate, more whole grains, no cereal products; more fruit, less sugar; and so on. Too much confusing information is available, much attention is paid by the popular press and public to fad diets and preliminary dietary findings, and too little attention is paid to serious dietary recommendation. The present review of studies aims to strengthen our knowledge regarding the dietary requirements, food sources, and potential benefits, Modern food and its impact on human health. Practical suggestions for incorporating healthy fats will be made. Both food-source and supplemental intakes will be addressed with interrelationships to health throughout.