Background and objectives: While there is evidence of an altered immune profile in iron deficiency, the precise immunoregulatory role of iron is not known. Information particulary in children who are vulnerable to iron deficiency and infection, is lacking. We aimed to study the effect of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) on immunity.
Methods: In 101 children with IDA (iron deficiency anemia), (study group), and 99 normal children (control group), the percentage of lymphocytes, monocyte, neutrophile, level of immunoglobulin and serum iron, ferritin, Hb, MCV, HT, MCHC, MCH were compared.
Results: There was a significant difference between the two groups (control and study) in the distribution of various hematological and biochemical parameters (serum iron, ferritin, Hb, MCV, Ht, MCHC, MCH), (P<0.05).
The percentage of monocyte levels was 5,529 ± 3,720 in children with IDA and 4,574 ± 2,910 in the control group (p=0.044). The percentage of neutrophils was 45,045 ± 15,982% in children with IDA and 57,562 ± 16,267 % in the control group ((p<0.0001). The percentage of lymphocytes with was 43,681 ± 17,936% in children with IDA and 38,199 ± 16,699% in the control group (P<0.026). There was no difference in the distribution of éosinophile and basophile (p>0.05). The percentage of EOSINOPHILE was 0.881 ± 1,385% in the anemic group; and 0.877 ± 0.938% in the control group (P=0.979). The level of BASOPHILE was 0.307 ± 0.522% in the anemic group; and 0.387 ± 0.603% in the control group (P=0.318). IgG level was 548,772 ± 91,885 mg/dl in children with IDA and 852,714 ± 181,424 mg/dl in normal children (P<0.0001). IgA level was 74,123 ± 35,109 mg/dl in study group, and in 94,936 ± 64,452 mg/dl control group (P<0.0049). IgD level was 4,729 ± 6,53 mg/dl in anemic group and in control group was 7,191 ± 6,439 mg/dl (P<0.0081).
Conclusion: These results suggest that humoral, cell-mediated which have an important role in various steps of immunogenic mechanisms are influenced by iron deficiency anemia.