Background: The study identified processed foods that can be targeted for reformulation and whose sodium content can be monitored over time in order to reduce sodium intake in the Philippines. The objectives were to estimate per capita sodium intake from minimally processed and processed foods by income quintile and urban/rural location; and identify foods that contribute to the variance in sodium intake of the Philippine population.
Methods: One day household food weighing data covering 4880 households from the 2008 National Nutrition Survey was used. Mean per capita sodium consumption and percentiles of intake from processed and minimally processed food categories were calculated using STATA. Regression analysis was used to identify foods that contributed to the variance in sodium intake.
Results: Foods which significantly accounted for 99.4% of the variance in sodium intake were 13 types of processed foods and 2 types of minimally processed foods. Processed Soup, Sauces, and Flavor Enhancers contributed the greatest proportion to per capita sodium intake. Processed foods with significant contributions to the variance in intake were instant noodles, traditional fermented condiments and sauces, dried and processed meat/fish/poultry products, salted eggs, alcoholic beverages, white bread and pan de sal (a traditional Filipino bread), wheat and egg noodles, crispy cereal chips and extruded snacks, butter and margarine, cheese, and chocolate based beverages.
Conclusion: Identifying processed foods that significantly contribute to sodium intake, followed by reformulating and monitoring the sodium content of these foods over time, should be considered as one strategy to reduce sodium intake in the Philippines.
Published Date: 2021-12-30; Received Date: 2021-12-09