Background: Although non comunicable diseases have a multifactorial origin, changes in eating patterns seem to weigh more. Population groups that maintain their traditional eating patterns have a lower prevalence of these diseases.
Methods: Thirty-five students of the Universidad Autonoma de Tabasco, 22 women (62%, 18.58 years) and 13 men (37%, 18.76 years), were given 100 grams of Oreochromis aureus daily, five days a week, during eight weeks. Data on anthropometry, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin and the HOMA-IR index were recorded before and after providing the fish. Results: In the experimental group, significant differences were observed between the first and the second measurement of insulin (p=0.004) and of the HOMA-IR (p=0.0001). Although an increase in the amount of insulin was evident in the second value, it was not greater than the cutoff point plus one SD, according to reference values. A significant difference in after-fasting glucose values was recorded for the women, with a smaller second value (p=0.003), however this did not occur in the case of the men. A decrease in after-fasting glucose values (p=0.015) was recorded for the group that presented at least one anomaly, in contrast with the group that presented no anomaly in the initial evaluation (p=0.078). The group with no anomaly presented a slight increase in insulin (p=0.074), as well as an increase in the HOMA-IR (p=0.019), with an average in the reference intervals. A significant difference in the initial glucose (p=0.006) and HbA1c (p=0.008) values was recorded between the two groups. Conclusions: The addition of 100 grams of Oreochromus aureus was accompanied by an increase in insulin values and a decrease in after-fasting glucose values, with no changes in glycosylated hemoglobin or lipids.