There is a growing awareness about the use of goat milk as source of protein for man. However, the production level is not enough to cater for the increasing population of the country. Therefore, it is important to look into how to improve the milk production capacity of Nigerian goat breed. This discussion attempts to explore the influence of genetic and non-genetic factors on milk yield and milk composition in goats. Different breeds possess different milking potentials; this is possibly because their genomes are different. Nutrition is a vital component in any attempt to improve milk production in goats, correct estimation of feed requirements is important in the utilization of feed supplements. The ability of a goat to draw upon body reserves to meet the energy requirement during lactation is important in sustaining high level of milk production. Milk production generally peaks as parity increases, thereafter declining slowly and udder size also have a strong and significant effect on milk yield. In order to increase goat milk production, goat farmers need to be focused on the nutrition and other management practices as it affects their herds.