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Teaching Strategy for Improvement of Socialization Skill of Student with Autism
Autism-Open Access

Autism-Open Access
Open Access

ISSN: 2165-7890

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Research - (2020) Volume 10, Issue 4

Teaching Strategy for Improvement of Socialization Skill of Student with Autism

Tonni Aktar*
 
*Correspondence: Tonni Aktar, Department of Special Education, Institute of Education and Research, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh, Tel: 01982478181, Email:

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Abstract

This study explores the scenario of teaching strategy and its effectiveness on students with Autism. The study finds that teaching strategy is not effective. Teaching strategy depends on teacher’s education background, knowledge about special children, teacher’s interest and willpower. But maximum teachers have inadequate knowledge about special education. In our country this section was disregarded but there has been some structural development over the years. However, still there is no good quality education, training system and sufficient budget. The senior teachers have more experience, so they are only good at this sector. As our social environment and transport are not suitable for them. So children and family members are victims of bulling. For this reason many parents don’t come regularly to school. As a result distance is created between teacher and student. So, teachers should give motivation and mental support. Parents’ consciousness, teaching performance, proper guideline & social skill therapy can develop their socialization skill. Developing the socialization skill depends on the level of Autism. The children with Mild Autism can develop very quickly. Early intervention plays a great role for developing socialization skill of Autism. Regular class, social skill therapy, making friends, parents’ support and proper direction are needed to improve socialization skill for these children with Autism.

Keywords

Epilepsy Socialization skill; Teaching strategy; Inadequate knowledge; Mental support; Proper guideline

Introduction

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a pervasive neurodevelopment disorder characterized by impairments in social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests or activities (American Psychiatric Association [APA] [1].

Teaching strategy is an essential asset to a teacher of special education. Teaching Strategy refers to how much a teacher can teach with creativity, interactivity and systematic way. In Bangladesh this field of special Education is under developed. Teacher should teach students in different ways by many teaching aids of classroom.

Social skills instruction is the deliberate effort by educators to teach social skills to students, typically based on an assessment of needed skills, and then employing an identified curriculum [2].

Good teachers dispose of a balanced and mature personality, and have developed experience-based knowledge and skills [3].

But the teachers teach in traditional way like regular School & don’t prepare any lesson plan. So this study finds out the challenges, barriers, limitation and recommendation. Parents send their children for improvement but it’s important to know how much students can learn and apply in their life. This paper also explores the effectiveness of teaching strategy on socialization skill. This skill is important for Human being. If the students with Autism can’t learn this skill, they will face different types of problem. Because our environment is not compatible for them.

Sometimes family or relatives are doing bad behaviours when Autism children don’t want to go outside for shopping, attend any programme, and cry to see when relatives come to their house.

Difficulties in understanding social stimuli, in initiating and responding to social bids, and in appreciating the affect that is intrinsic to social interactions can be baffling for people with autism [4].

Parents expressed concerns that their child would never make friends, not adapt to various social situations, suffer from depression, and would fall prey to victimization [5].

Especially the mother of Autism children faces many challenges in family and society.

On the other hand, maximum parents are not educated & have no knowledge about how to teach and manage their children. So, they are highly dependent on class teacher.

Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships, ranging, for example, from difficulties adjusting behavior to suit various social contexts; to difficulties in sharing imaginative play or in making friends; to absence of interest in peers (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [DSM-5].

Teaching social skill refers to teaching key social rules. Such as: respect the elders, waiting, turn talking , eye contact, changing the topic in conversation, listening to others, being flexible and quiet, making peer group. Peer group plays an important role for improving socialization.

Little is known about to what extent people with Asperger syndrome require support to help ameliorate the core characteristics of the condition, or if there are other, less well-known difficulties resulting from having Asperger syndrome that would benefit from additional support [6].

Special education research has provided equally startling advances leading to improved practices that have dramatically improved the lives, learning, and competencies of persons with and without disabilities. Common to research in all disciplines is the gap between initial discoveries and their becoming a part of routine practices. However, unique to special and general education research are the separateness of the research and practice communities, the limited relevance of educational research, the failure to articulate manageable research-validated interventions, and the weak opportunities for professional development [7].

At least some of the challenges faced in special education, such as the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students, the gap between research and practice, and inequitable educational opportunities, can be explained in part by a research gap, or, in other words, a failure to conduct the different types of research best suited for addressing the complicated issues faced in schools [8].

In context of our country, there have the shortage of remarkable paper in this sector. So, it was difficult for author to explain this topic without any guideline and support. If there was any research on this topic, then the author could understand which area should be emphasized. Besides, some guardians and teachers were not cooperative. They didn’t give interview spontaneously and some teachers didn’t give information about teachers training, teacher recruitment, school authority and their educational background for inter- politics of their school. Every section of this special education is not systematic and qualitative.

Literature Review

People with ASD tend to have communication deficits, such as responding inappropriately in conversations, misreading nonverbal interactions, or having difficulty building friendships appropriate to their age. In addition, people with ASD may be overly dependent on routines, highly sensitive to changes in their environment, or intensely focused on inappropriate items. Again, the symptoms of people with ASD will fall on a continuum, with some individuals showing mild symptoms and others having much more severe symptoms (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [DSM-5].

Social communication conventions, such as socially appropriate conversation, reciprocal interaction, and accurate use and interpretation of nonverbal communication, may be extremely difficult for students who function at even the higher end of the autism spectrum [9].

Social skills are critical to later success in school and adult life. Typically, children build these through interaction with caregivers and peers. However, some students, especially those diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), demonstrate delays in this domain and require additional interventions [10].

Children and youth with Asperger Syndrome (AS) manifest social skills problems that can negatively impact their functioning across school, home, and community [11].

Parental and teacher involvement intensified the treatment for therapists, parents and teachers, yet did not yield the expected additional effect relative to SST (social skill therapy) for children only as reported by parents.

A number of researchers have suggested the importance of implementing interventions in the school setting to improve socialization and positive peer interactions for students diagnosed with ASD [12].

Social communication in children and adolescents with ASD can be enhanced through the use of a groupwork intervention addressing social interaction and understanding [13].

Group-based social skills interventions (GSSIs) are widely used for treating social competence among youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but their efficacy is unclear. Previous meta-analysis of the literature on well-designed trials of GSSIs is limited in size and scope, collapsing across highly heterogeneous sources (parents; youths; teachers; observers; behavioural tasks) [14].

Many interventions have been designed to address the social skills deficits of children and adolescents with ASD. The types of appropriate social skills training vary with the age of the child or adolescent and functioning level. Typically, social skills interventions are facilitated by a therapist or teacher and may involve training peers, siblings, or parents to interact with youth with ASD in ways that increase their social skills, or may involve direct teaching of social skills to individuals with ASD [15].

Parents should be involved in the sharing of information, collaboration, planning, and process that may be required to ease or facilitate significant transitions for a student. Parents can help to identify changes to routines or settings that may be difficult for the student. They can also help to support successful transitions by assisting in determining an effective transition process for an individual student or building skills and/or routines to familiarize the student with different expectations in the new setting [16].

Peer-mediated intervention (PMI) is most commonly defined as a treatment approach that engages typically developing peers to teach children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) social skills and increase their social interactions, mainly in a school setting [17].

Connor and Cavendish have investigated how students with learning disabilities perceive the effectiveness, ineffectiveness of their teachers and what helps them to learn. They were able to identify two categories: Teacher Characteristics and Pedagogical Practices. For the first category the students have indicated in the context of what helps them best to learn: respectful, empathetic, patient and humorous. Whereas the second category focused the following aspects: motivate students through engagement, be willing to individualize instruction, be willing to use multimodal and differentiated instruction, provide additional access to teachers, maintain a reasonable pace and stay on top of us and do not give up on us [18-20].

Objectives of Study

This paper has two key objectives. The two objectives are interconnected with each other that help to find out the deep information according to the scenario of our Special Education.

1. To identify the effectiveness of teaching strategy of class teachers of students with Autism.

2. To find out the socialization progresses of students with Autism after teaching activities.

The first objective helps to identify the teachers’ performance, their educational qualification, ability to classroom management and also know about the teacher training.

The second objective helps to find out the improvement of socialization skill of students with Autism.

Methodology

• Sampling technique: This is qualitative research. Guardians and Class teacher provided the information about daily life activities and social behavior of the students with Autism. The number of students with Autism in this study is 30 (boys=18 and girls=12) and their average age is 15. Three schools were selected in Dhaka city of Bangladesh (SWID Laboratory Model School, the branch of Ramna and another branch of Gendaria & Ramna Buddi Protibondhi Bidyalay). Author took permission to communicate with parents or caregiver, class teacher and students with Autism (who is able to talk) from School Authority and parents of the students’. Only the researcher had access to see the IEP (Individual Education plan) to student’s personal information in details (Table 1).

Target population Sampling techniques
Student with Autism Nonprobability ( purposive)

Table 1. Population and sampling technique.

• Research Instrument:

Questionnaire:

The open and close ended questionnaires were developed to find out the research objective. There had total 10 questions (Table 2).

Types of question Number of question
Dichotomous (yes/ No) 5
Multiple choice 3
Open-Ended 2
Total question = 10

Table 2. Types of questions.

Classroom observation schedule:

Observation method used for data collection. The Researcher was participant observer. The researcher observed each class for 40 minutes. Total 10 classes (5 classrooms of SWID Laboratory Model School, the branch of Ramna, 3 classrooms of another branch of Gendaria of SWID and 2 classrooms of Ramna Buddi Protibondhi Bidyalaya) were observed. The Researcher noticed the teaching-learning activities, classroom management, students’ response, teaching strategy.

Participants

Class teacher: They had IEP of students in their class. They taught the students with Autism. So, they also know better. So, they were one of main participants.

Students with Autism: Who is able to talk or response. Researcher took information from them. Some students who have mild level of Autism, they could response.

Guardians of the students with Autism: parents, caregiver or siblings of the students with Autism were selected for questionnaire.

Results and Discussion

There have three types of data presented here in charts which arises from classroom observations and questionnaire (Table 3).

Level of Autism Number of student
Mild 19
Moderate 6
Severe 3
Profound 2
TOTAL = 30

Table 3. Level of Autism.

Chart number 1: The result shows that the level of Mild children is more socialized than other levels. They can understand earlier. The percentage of socialization of Mild Autism is 63.33%. Autism of Moderate level is 20%, Autism level of severe 20% and profound 6.67%. Because maximum students are Mild in these schools. Parents don’t want to admit the level of severe and profound children in school. They think their children are very hyper and aggressive. So, teachers and other children can’t accept them. As our country is not conscious about Autism. So, transport or social environments are not suitable for them. So, severe and profound students don’t come regularly to school. Consequently, there have a lot of gaps between teachers and students. The level of Moderate children is developing their skill gradually but practice and support are more important things to develop. Mild has socialization, eye contact, communication skill but these skills are limited. So, they can learn easily. Without teaching strategy of socialization, Mild autism can also learn it. But after teaching they will be more socialized than before. So, main focus should be given on other levels. Moderate level is not satisfied after teaching strategy. They need more support and guideline. Moderate level students don’t attend and come to school regularly. Because they have deficits of socialization and behavioural skill. They cry when their parents force to come to school. Whole class time they don’t want to sit down properly. Here, teachers can’t manage them appropriately. The enrolment rate of Severe and profound students in the school are very low. A class teacher said that “They can’t do anything; they come to school very rare. I have been taking class for 5 months in this section. But I didn’t see the 4-5 students of this class. They didn’t come. But their names are in the attendance register. When the head teacher will call for disability allowance, they will come and fill in the form and submit the paper. Then they again won’t come” (Figure 1).

autism-teaching-strategy

Figure 1. Rate of socialization after teaching strategy (%).

The Performance of Class Teacher: Effectiveness of teaching strategy depends on the teachers’ performance. Teaching Performance is related to the teachers’ educational background, proper training, and management skill. But teachers are not expert and have no sufficient knowledge in this field (Table 4).

Teachers’ performance Job of experience
Best 16 years
Better 9-10 years
Average 5 years
Others’ 1 years (but it depends on the teacher)

Table 4. Performance of teacher.

The teachers who have 16 years’ experience or degree of special Education in this field, they are expert in this area. But this number of expert teacher is very low.

Chart number 2: This chart shows that the teachers’ performance is not satisfied. There were total 17 teachers. Teachers’ performance plays vital role for the Students with Autism. According to the teachers they have no academic knowledge about special education and effective training on this area. However, the senior teachers are good at this area. They have a lot of experiences. Only they can manage students and give social skill therapy in proper ways. But the percentage of the best teachers is 18%, Better 23% and Average 41% and others 18%. Average performance is available in this area. Other teachers are just in name. They have no attention or any knowledge and ability of management skill. According to system of School, there should have two teachers at a time in classroom. But most of the time they remain absent. Sometimes there remains only one teacher. Sometimes at the time of recruitment of teacher, priority is given on lobbing. The quality of teacher is not valued. That’s why their performances are not effective.

A teacher said, “I have joined this school for 1 year. My husband did not agree. We have no children. I was passing free time. That’s why I joined this special school as a teacher. Still now I haven’t got any proper training”.

Another teacher said, “We don’t get salary every month. But after 2 months or more we get money. For this reason we suffer from financial crisis. And uncertain life is the barrier to teach students with cheerful mind” (Figure 2).

autism-class-teacher

Figure 2. Rate of performance of class teacher (%).

The chart of Effectiveness of teaching activities:

The chart shows which levels of Autism students have received this strategy properly and doing well in their life (Figure 3).

autism-teaching-activities

Figure 3. Effectiveness of teaching activities (%).

This result shows the effectiveness of teaching activities. The teaching strategy is an important part of any student. Here Mild students are doing better than other levels. Teaching performance and teacher knowledge help to improve new teaching strategy. As teachers have average skill. So, Moderate, Severe &Profound autism can’t cope up with their direction (Figure 4).

autism-special-education

Figure 4. Background of teachers in special education.

In context of Bangladesh, this is the common scenario of Special Education. Teacher is the main important factor of students’ life. But this study finds the lacking of teachers’ teaching strategy and their backgrounds are not related for this field, so students can’t improve day by day. Teachers should motivate the parents. But they just call meeting sometimes. So, this meeting doesn’t encourage parents. As different levels of students (like Autism, Down syndrome, and Cerebral Palsy) remain present in the classroom, it becomes difficult for teachers to manage. Moreover, class size is large. Some classes have 22, 20, 16 students. It doesn’t suit with Special Education. Class time is limited. Class time is supposed to continue 10am to 1pm but it ends within 12 pm. In this short time it is not possible for teachers to make the class fruitful. In this regards, guardians also have some responsibilities. The students are given home task. But they don’t complete it because some parents are indifferent to the practice of the students with Autism.

This paper shows that there have lacking of teacher’s performance and teaching-learning activities. Students’ family are not conscious. So, there have no noticeable effectiveness of improvement of socialization skill.

Rational Study

Effective social skills allow students to form healthy relationships and interactions [2].

There is hardly awareness about Special Education in Bangladesh. Teachers don’t have any adequate knowledge about special Education. So, now a question arises that how teacher teaching strategy is and how relationship between teacher and student is. The purpose of this study is to analyze on how much effective the teaching-learning activities to children with Autism and how it can be developed. Social skills are an important factor for the students with Autism. Most of the people don’t know the definition and characteristic of Autism. People are just known to the word “Autism” and recognize them as disable persons. This is a developing country, so there have a lot of problems and half of the population can’t fulfill their basic needs. Some parents are very conscious about education, therapy but maximum parents are unconscious. Some parents send their children to school for disability allowance. As parents don’t know how to improve or manage, what they should do for their children. So parents are also dependent on teacher. That’s why teaching strategy is an essential part. So, this paper is important because it also finds the teachers’ knowledge, teaching activities and students’ attention, responding skill and also discuss about recommendation for improving.

Recommendation

This field has a lot of challenges, barriers and limitation for lacking of unconsciousness, insufficient budget, and poor knowledge about special education. This barriers can’t change by overnight but can change gradually. Because a developing country can’t afford everything. So, gradually these problems should be solved. The Government and Non-Government Organization should provide economic and material support for the improvement of special need of education.

As teachers are not skilled and have no degree of Special Education, a long course or long-term training system should be arranged and evaluation method should be kept. Sometimes at the time of recruitment of teacher, priority is given on lobbing. The quality of teacher is not valued. That’s why their performance are not effective. So, transparency should be ensured in case of teacher recruitment. Teacher doesn’t get salary each month and amount is not enough to live well. So, teachers and stuffs are losing motivation for this job. For this reason they who have completed Master’s degree of Special Education from renowned University don’t want to attend this job for salary & poor system of this section. So, budget should be repaired. Teacher should motivate the guardians and call for parents meeting in a week. The teachers should give a proper guideline of parents so that they can manage their children by following this instruction. Teachers should prepare IEP for students and also give feedback so that everybody can understand the improvement of student. Teachers should give mental support to their mother because this environment is not supportive for them. So, many TV programs (such as: Talk show, Drama, Movie), conference and seminar should be arranged so that people can be conscious and grow a supportive mind for them. Parents and siblings should give qualitative time & plays with them.

Limitation of Study

The Researcher had faced some limitations in this study. These limitations are described below:

1. Time limitation;

2. Some parents didn’t answer properly with researcher. They just replied short answer. So, there had information lacking;

3. Some class teachers didn’t collect IEP of students. Even some teachers didn’t fill up IEP properly. So, the researcher didn’t collect official information properly;

4. Some teachers wanted to hide their educational background and didn’t tell appropriately about the present condition of their class students with Autism. So, it is quite difficult to find out the exact information;

5. Budget was the main factor for limitation. The cost of printing, transport and internet was expensive to me. I paid all the expenses out of my own pocket;

6. Translation was challenging for researcher from Bangla to English.

Conclusion

Education is a very important part of the blue world of Students with Autism. They will be able to learn socialization skill as well as daily life activities through the medium of education. But in our country teachers have no pedagogical skill. So, teaching strategy is not effective. If there is a lack of knowledge of the teacher and there is no long-term training or courses system so there can be terrible consequences in special education. Therefore teacher recruitment needs to be more systematic and appropriate. The study repeatedly raises questions about the quality of teacher education and the effectiveness of training. So, research is needed on this topic. Both the father and mother have to give quality time to their children and not just only rely on teacher. The students with Autism don’t learn much just by going to school, sitting the classroom for two hours. Rather the development of the students with Autism is possible with the efforts of parents, special educators and therapist. Regardless of the level of Autism, if starting early intervention at an early age can also improve social skills and other skills. The development of special education requires a lot of research which is very rare in our country. A further research should be done on the effectiveness of teachers’ training of special education.

References

Author Info

Tonni Aktar*
 
Department of Special Education, Institute of Education and Research, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
 

Citation: Aktar T (2020) Teaching Strategy for Improvement of Socialization Skill of Student with Autism. Autism Open Access 10: 261. doi: 10.35248/2165-7890.20.10.261.

Received Date: Jul 26, 2020 / Accepted Date: Sep 03, 2020 / Published Date: Sep 10, 2020

Copyright: © 2020 Aktar T. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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