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The casein kinase 1 (CK1) belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinases. CK1 members, which commonly exist in all eukaryotes, are involved in the regulation of many cellular processes linked to cell cycle progression, spindledynamics, and chromosome segregation. Additionally, CK1 regulate key signaling pathways such as Wnt (Wingless/ Int-1), Hh (Hedgehog), and Hippo, known to be critically involved in tumor progression. Considering the importance of CK1 for accurate cell division and regulation of tumor suppressor functions, it is not surprising scientific effort has enormously increased. In mammals, CK1 regulate the transition from interphase to metaphase in mitosis. In budding yeast and fission yeast, CK1 phosphorylate Rec8 subunits of cohesin complex and regulate chromosome segregation in meiosis. During meiosis, two rounds of chromosome segregation after a single round of DNA replication produce haploid gametes from diploid precursors. Any mistake in chromosome segregation may result in aneuploidy, which in meiosis are one of the main causes of infertility, abortion and many genetic diseases in humans. This review summarizes the expression and biological function of CK1 family members, especially their role in meiosis.