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From the bench to the bedside: Infrared, Raman, NMR and Brewster spectroscopies, and the cause and cure for dry eye
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology

Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Open Access

ISSN: 2155-9570

From the bench to the bedside: Infrared, Raman, NMR and Brewster spectroscopies, and the cause and cure for dry eye


9th Global Ophthalmology Summit

March 15-16, 2017 London, UK

Douglas Borchman

University of Louisville, USA

Posters & Accepted Abstracts: J Clin Exp Ophthalmol

Abstract :

Dry eye affects over six million people in the United States. Tears become more unstable with age and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Changes in the composition, and structure of a thin film of lipid on the surface of tears called the â??tear film lipid layerâ?? (TFLL) may cause tears to become more unstable. In this study NMR spectroscopy was used to measure TFLL composition. Infrared, Raman and Brewster angle spectroscopies were used to measure the structure of the TFLL. Langmuir trough technology was used to measure TFLL rheology. Several abnormalities in the TFLL composition were identified that may contribute to TF instability including terpenoids, saturation, protein and cholesteryl esters. When terpenoid levels in TFLL are low as in MGD, the TF is unstable and patients have the signs and symptoms of dry eye. When terpenoids are restored with azithromycin treatment, TF stability is restored and patients no longer have the signs and symptoms of dry eye. A more saturated TFLL contributed to TF stability. The TFLL phase transition temperature and hydrocarbon chain decrease with increasing age. It is reasonable that stronger lipid-lipid interactions could stabilize the tear film since these interactions must be broken for tear breakup to occur. Meibum is fluid enough to be expressed from the meibomian glands and becomes more ordered (viscous) on the surface of the eye. A stiff ordered molecular arrangement results in a more elastic TFLL in which molecules are able to rearrange during the compression and expansion of a blink.

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