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Bones in our body are living tissue. They have their own blood vessels and are made of living cells, which help them to grow and to repair themselves. As well, proteins, minerals and vitamins make up the bone. We are born with about 300 soft bones. During childhood and adolescence, the cartilage grows and is slowly replaced by hard bone. Some of these bones later fuse together, so that the adult skeleton has 206 bones.
Cells in our bones are responsible for bone production, maintenance, and modeling:
Osteoblasts: These cells are derived from mesenchymal stem cells and are responsible for bone matrix synthesis and its subsequent mineralization. In the adult skeleton, the majority of bone surfaces that are not undergoing formation or resorption (i.e. not being remodeled) are lined by bone lining cells. Osteocytes: These cells are osteoblasts that become incorporated within the newly formed osteoid, which eventually becomes calcified bone. Osteocytes situated deep in bone matrix maintain contact with newly incorporated osteocytes in osteoid, and with osteoblasts and bone lining cells on the bone surfaces, through an extensive network of cell processes (canaliculi). They are thought to be ideally situated to respond to changes in physical forces upon bone and to transduce messages to cells on the bone surface, directing them to initiate resorption or formation responses. Osteoclasts: These cells are large multinucleated cells, like macrophages, derived from the hematopoietic lineage. Osteoclasts function in the resorption of mineralized tissue and are found attached to the bone surface at sites of active bone resorption. Their characteristic feature is a ruffled edge where active resorption takes place with the secretion of bone-resorbing enzymes, which digest bone matrix.
Scientific Tracks Abstracts: Journal of Probiotics & Health
Accepted Abstracts: Journal of Probiotics & Health