Analyzing and testing body fluids such as blood and urine for the presence of substances that are not normally present can be an important aspect of forensic research. Examples include excessive amounts of prescription drugs, illegal drugs, and dangerous goods. During an autopsy, a forensic pathologist (who may sometimes be an appointed "medical examiner" or "coroner" in some jurisdictions) or a mortuary technician collects samples for toxicity testing. As soon as possible after collecting, specimens must be correctly identified, labelled, and sealed. All specimens in a case must be gathered individually and sealed in tamperproof containers. All evidence for each case is tracked using unique numbered seals. For legal purposes, the chain of custody, like any other piece of evidence, must be preserved at all stages, from the morgue to laboratory testing, reporting, and storage. If the integrity of the evidence is compromised, the case may be brought to court.
Depending on the situation of the crime or accident, and the observation of the victim or suspect's appearance, the toxicological analysis examines about 150 different substances. Stimulants (amphetamine, caffeine, cocaine), alkaloids and amines (dextromethorphan, efedrin, quinine), narcotics and analgesics (codeine, morphine), halcinogens (LSD, PCP), antidepressants, sedatives (barbiturate), Just a few examples of sedatives. Clinical toxicological studies can be very helpful in identifying or eliminating addiction, especially when it is necessary to explain clinical signs or symptoms of unknown cause. It can help in the development of specific but potentially dangerous addiction treatments. In addition to the general immunoassays for detecting addictive substances, some drugs and amatoxins, there are several more. Chromatography using a mass-selective detector is available in specialized toxicology laboratories. Toxicological analysis data must be properly interpreted and understood. Poison control facilities can support all elements of addiction treatment, including laboratory tests.
Over the last few decades, extensive research has been conducted on different abusive substances and their metabolites in different biological samples such as saliva, sweat and hair. Biological samples other than urine include workplace drug testing, chronic poisoning information, driver's licenses, clinical toxicology, criminal justice, addiction treatment, postmortem toxicology research, drug-related crime investigations, and child protection. Because of its widespread use in many countries (Allibe et al. 2017; Baumgartner et al. 1979; Khajuria and Nayak 2017). Hair test is a suitable supplement for urine test to detect new types of psychotropic drugs (Kintz 2017a; Montesano et al. 2017） 。Procedures for systematic toxicology investigations of numerous substance groups related to clinical toxicology, forensic toxicology, and doping control are checked using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Works from 1981 to 1991 are taken into account, detailing how to recognize acute or chronic addiction and drug addiction. Screening procedures are included in the following categories: central stimulants (amphetamine, cocaine), halcinogens (LSD, fencyclidine, tetrahydrocannabinol), opioids (drugs) and other powerful analgesics, non-opioid analgesics. Drugs, antihistamines (histamine H1 receptor blockers), anti-Parkinson drugs, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, phenothiazines. Forensic toxicology addresses a variety of situations, including drug-related crimes, determining the involvement of alcohol or other drugs in human death, and complex multidrug use in the case of drunk driving. The composition of the biological matrix and the methods of identifying drugs or other chemicals in biological samples are as diverse as the cases. This allows scientists to choose from a wide range of sample preparation methods from the Toolbox. "Our study shows the variety of sample types involved in toxicological analysis and the wide range of sample preparation techniques currently available," said the corresponding author, Sabra R. Botch Jones, MS, MS, MA. , Assistant Professor of Anatomy and Neurobiology, said.
Copyright: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.