Journal of Clinical and Cellular Immunology

Journal of Clinical and Cellular Immunology
Open Access

ISSN: 2155-9899

Toufic O Nashar

Toufic O Nashar
College of Veterinary Medicine, Nursing & Allied Health,
Tuskegee, AL 36088

  • Commentary
    The Quest for an HIV-1 Vaccine Adjuvant: Bacterial Toxins as New Potential Platforms
    Author(s): Toufic O NasharToufic O Nashar

    While tremendous efforts are undergoing towards finding an effective HIV-1 vaccine, the search for an HIV-1 vaccine adjuvant lags behind and is understudied. More recently, however, efforts have focused on testing adjuvant formulations that can boost the immune response and generate broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 ENV (gp160). Despite this, there remain a number of challenges towards achieving this goal. These include safety of adjuvant formulations; stability of the incorporated antigens; maintenance of ENV immunogenicity; optimal inoculation sites; the effective combination of adjuvants; stability of ENV neutralizing epitopes in some adjuvant formulations; mucosal immunity; and long-term maintenance of the immune response. A new class of adjuvants for HIV-1 proteins is suggested to overcome many of the limitations of some other adjuvants. Type 1 (LT-I) and type 2 (LT-II) hu.. View More»
    DOI: 10.4172/2155-9899.1000225

    Abstract PDF

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