+44 20 3868 9735
Formaldehyde (FA) is a colorless, flammable, and highly reactive one-carbon compound that is emitted from several objects at homes and workplaces. FA is also widely found in many products used in medical colleges, hospitals, and factories. Many people are exposed to FA daily via inhalation at their homes and workplaces, which contributes to environmental and occupational health problems and potentially, cancer hazards. Two types of immunomodulatory effects of FA have been widely reported. On the one hand, FA inhalation and exposure induces or exacerbates eosinophilic airway inflammation with increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness and Th2-related cytokine secretion, resulting in Th2-type immune diseases such as allergic asthma and dermatitis. On the other hand, FA exposure has no significant deleterious effect on respiratory distress and instead prevents allergic lung inflammation by suppression of T cell activity with decreased production of T cellrelated cytokines. This review aimed to provide updated information on the two different immunotoxic effects induced by FA inhalation by summarizing the literature on FA exposure effects under various conditions. The insights from this review may help comprehend the mechanisms underlying the immunotoxic effects of FA and provide direction for future research.
Published Date: 2022-04-15; Received Date: 2022-03-14