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TB prevalence and BCG Vaccinations Correlations to Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children | Abstract
Journal of Clinical Trials

Journal of Clinical Trials
Open Access

ISSN: 2167-0870

Abstract

TB prevalence and BCG Vaccinations Correlations to Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children

Tareef Fadhil Raham*

Background: This study aims to examine the influence of BCG status and TB prevalence on variances among countries regarding the new Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C).

Material and methods: We chose all countries which report MIS-C till 23/6/2020. The number of MIS-C cases for each 10 million inhabitants has been examined among 3 categories of countries classified according to BCG program status. TB prevalence, MIS-C no./10 million (M) population and COVID-19 deaths/M are taken as markers. Receiver Operation Characteristic-(ROC) curve, with some relative indicators such as (sensitivity and specificity rates), estimation area of the trade-off between sensitivity and specificity, and cutoff points were used with different studied markers for discriminating different three pairs of countries (which have different BCG practices).

Results: BCG vaccination and high TB prevalence were found significantly associated with decreased MIS-C no. and COVID-19 deaths.

Conclusion: Findings might explain variances of MIS-C incidence and COVID-19 mortality among countries worldwide. Further studies to confirm this relationship and to confirm possible similar relations in Kawasaki Disease (KD) in previous epidemics are recommended. Ovarian Cancer (EOC) in early stage is difficult to diagnose. Serum indicators for stage I-II of epithelial ovarian cancer which confined to pelvic cavity were found through retrospective analysis, possible early detection methods might be found.

Methods: 165 patients were diagnosed as epithelial ovarian cancer at stage I-II from January 1st, 2015 to December 31st, 2019. Data was collected including age, pathological type, serum D-dimer (D-D), Neutrophil to Lymphocyte ratio (N/L), the platelet to Lymphocyte ratio (P/L), Cancer Antigen 125 (CA125), Human Epididymis Protein 4 (HE4) and diameter of the ovarian mass by ultrasound.

Results: D-D, CA125, HE4, ROMA, diameter, pathological type and age were significantly different in the different stage, age showed independent effect after logistical regression (P<0.05). D-D, CA125, HE4, ROMA, diameter, age and stage were significantly different in the different pathological type, and diameter showed significant independent influence on different pathological type after binary logistic regression (P<0.05).

Conclusion: CA125, HE4, ROMA, diameter of tumor, D-dimer and age were found significantly different between stage I and stage II, with age shows good effect on the diagnosis for stage II and diameter of tumor shows diagnostic value for non-serous ovarian cancer. Combined diagnosis may improve the diagnosis rate of early ovarian cancer.

Published Date: 2021-05-11; Received Date: 2021-04-20