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Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients are vulnerable to osteoporosis and fractures. This has significant impact on the mobility and quality of life of DMD patients, making the development of strategies to prevent of treat these complications critical. As such, this review incorporates a discussion of the determinants of bone health in healthy children, followed by an examination of bone health in DMD, with a particular focus of vitamin D deficiency and its implications. An illustrative case study highlights the bone-related complications that can occur in DMD and assessment approach.