Kristen Harris Nwanyanwu, Paula-Anne Newman-Casey, Thomas W Gardner and Jennifer I Lim
Diabetic retinopathy affects 4.2 million people in the United States and is the leading cause of blindness in
working-aged people. As the prevalence of diabetes continues to rise, cost-effective interventions to decrease blindness from diabetic retinopathy will be paramount. While HbA1c and duration of disease are known risk factors, they account for only 11% of the risk of developing microvascular complications from the disease. The assessment of environmental risk factors for diabetic eye disease allows for the determination of modifiable population-level challenges that may be addressed to facilitate the end of blindness from diabetes.