Anne Haaije de Boer
Groningen University, Netherlands
Posters & Accepted Abstracts: J Drug Metab Toxicol
Many infectious diseases emerge in the lungs or enter the human body through the lungs. Therefore, the lungs are an excellent port of entry for antibiotic drugs. A major advantage of pulmonary administration of antibiotics against lung diseases is deposition directly at the site of infection. This may enable to lower the dose compared to oral or parenteral administration, which reduces their adverse systemic side effects. On the other hand with higher drug concentrations from the same dose as given parenterally, it may become possible to eradicate drug resistant organisms as resistance often depends on the drug concentration achieved. Inhalation is also a non-invasive way of administration compared to injection. Dry powder inhalation offers additional advantages as the drug can be delivered in the dry state. This increases the stability and shelf life of the drug and eliminates the need for reconstitution of freeze dried powders for injection. It may even eliminate the need for a cold chain which could be relevant in rural areas of developing countries. Safe reconstitution and injection are furthermore often impossible in such areas due to a lack of sterile water and clean needles. Compared to nebulisation, dry powder inhalation saves considerable time whereas the efficacy of delivery may be much higher. The high doses and often unfavorable physicochemical properties for inhalation set high standards for dry powder inhaler formulations and devices however. Solutions are often found in particle engineering and powder processing while neglecting the opportunities for improved inhaler design. The incorporation of excipients increases the amount of powder to be inhaled and introduces yet unknown safety risks for the long term. The presentation will deal with the opportunities and challenges for dry powder antibiotic inhalation but also possible solutions and some very promising data will be presented.