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Mohamed A Al-Kamel
Regional Leishmaniasis Control Center, Yemen
Posters & Accepted Abstracts: J Clin Exp Dermatol Res
Aim: Leishmaniasis is a serious public health problem in Yemen. This study was designed to identify clinical and epidemiological features of leishmaniasis in Yemen. Methods: The study was conducted at the Regional Leishmaniasis Control Center in central Yemen. Data sourced from the medical records of 152 patients with confirmed active leishmaniasis, managed during April-August 2013, were analyzed. Results: A total of 94.1% of patients were rural residents. Al Bayda was the most endemic governorate (59.9%). Children represented the group at highest risk (57.2%) followed by adult females (32.9%); together these groups accounted for 90.1% of all patients. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis was the most prevalent form (49.3%) followed by cutaneous leishmaniasis (47.4%) and visceral leishmaniasis (3.3%). The wet ulcer was the most common type of lesion (49.7%) and the single lesion (69.4%) represented the most common presentation. All patients were ignorant of the nature of the disease and 55.9% had a history of using popular treatments. Conclusions: Cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis has significant endemicity in Yemen, especially in central areas. Al Bayda is the governorate with the highest endemicity and rural children and women represent the populations at highest risk. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis seems to be the most prevalent form and a single wet ulcer is the most common presentation. Infected refugees may represent new foci for imported Leishmania species. Ecology, geography, climate change, cultural gender- and age-specific duties, urban night activities and use of popular treatments are among proven risk factors.