Ethylic biodiesel: The bottlenecks for process optimization | 52451
Journal of Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications

Journal of Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications
Open Access

ISSN: 2090-4541

+44 1300 500008

Ethylic biodiesel: The bottlenecks for process optimization

International Congress and Expo on Biofuels & Bioenergy

August 25- 27, 2015 Valencia, Spain

Meirelles A J A1, Batista E A C1, Rodrigues C E C2, Batista F1, Bessa L1, Cravo M1, Porcina T1, Deboni T1, Cuevas M S1, Cavalcanti R1, Atsuko G1, Sampaio K1, Lucchesi K W1, Fonseca L A A P1, Ansolin M1, Shiozawa S1, Sampaio Neto O Z1 and Souza P T1

Scientific Tracks Abstracts: J Fundam Renewable Energy Appl

Abstract :

Biodiesel is mainly produced using the methylic route. Ethanol has the advantage of being a renewable alcohol, but the ethylic
route has drawbacks that must be overcome for process optimization. Ethanol enhances the mutual solubility of the hydrophilic
and lipophilic substances that occur along the production process and makes more problematic the purification steps. Along the
reaction path two liquid phases are formed, the upper one is rich in monoalkyl esters and the bottom one contains glycerol.
The industrial process uses basic homogeneous catalysts and requires a sequence of purification steps. The use of alternative
approaches, such as bio-catalysis, heterogeneous catalysis or supercritical conditions, also generates a two-phase reaction system
and requires the use of alcohol in excess due to the reaction´s reversible character. This means that phase splitting and alcohol
recovery are steps required for purifying biodiesel as well as for recycling the reactant in excess. In case of bioethanol as reactant,
the sequence of purification steps used in the methylic route is not the best option. For instance, the ethylic route potentially
requires a specific and complete dehydration unity for recovering bioethanol, increasing the production costs of biodiesel. A
new approach must be developed for the ethylic route, based, for instance, on the concept of using bioethanol in the whole
sequence of the biofuel production, from the seed to the tank. This approach involves the following main steps: Extraction and deacidification
of vegetable oils using bioethanol as solvent, reactive steps applied to both ethylic miscelas containing de-acidified
oil or free fatty acids, biodiesel purification steps with minimal addition of washing water and a recovery and dehydration step of
the bioethanol by extractive distillation using glycerol as dehydrating agent. The bioethanol used as reactant can also be acquired
in hydrated form (azeotropic mixture) and be dehydrated within the proposed process. The main bottlenecks of the production
process were addressed and process optimization performed. Different sources of fatty compounds were considered, including
the most important for the Brazilian case, such as soy and palm oils, as well as other sources of potential relevance for the future,
as microalgae oil. Experimental runs and modeling approaches were conducted with the aim of measuring and predicting the
relevant phase equilibrium data and for evaluating the performance of equipments for oil extraction and for oil de-acidification
by liquid-liquid extraction or ion exchange. The sequence of ethylic biodiesel production was investigated using ASPEN PLUS,
including the bioethanol recovery and dehydration step. Some aspects related to the integration of food, feed, bio-products and
biodiesel production were considered, for instance the quality of the deffated meal after oil extraction with bioethanol and the
recovery of minor components (tocopherols, sterols, etc.) during oil de-acidification and the biofuel production.

Biography :

Meirelles A J A graduated in Food Engineering (Unicamp, 1980), Master’s degree in Food Engineering (Unicamp, 1984), PhD in Process Engineering at TH
Merseburg (now Martin Luther Universität, Germany, 1987) and a PhD in Economics (IE- Unicamp, 1997). He is a professor at FEA -Unicamp and Fellow of
CNPq Research Productivity - Level 1B. He has supervised 24 doctoral theses, 28 Master’s theses and 47 undergraduate research works, published 115 articles
in professional journals, 176 full papers in conference proceedings, eight book chapters and a book. He has developed three patented processes or patent
applications under review by the PTO. He was awarded the Young Scientist Award (First, 1989) and the Academic Recognition Award Zeferino Vaz (2001). He has
conducted research in thermodynamics of phase equilibria, mass transfer phenomena and substances purification processes, with emphasis on the production of
food fluids, oil and bioproducts derived biofuels and sugar cane.