Environmental risk assessment of micro pollutants in the river Ni | 16597
Journal of Drug Metabolism & Toxicology

Journal of Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Open Access

ISSN: 2157-7609

Environmental risk assessment of micro pollutants in the river Nile - Egypt

International Conference on Toxicogenomics and Drug Monitoring

August 25-27, 2015 Valencia, Spain

Khaled Abbas Helmy Abdou

Beni Suef University, Egypt

Posters-Accepted Abstracts: J Drug Metab Toxicol

Abstract :

Environment is the surrounding medium in which animals and human are living and it is classified into: macro-environment and micro-environment. Environmental pollution is the introduction by man into the environment by substances or energy liable to cause hazards to human health, harm to living resources and ecological systems, damage to structures or amenity or the interference with legitimate uses of the environment. In all cases of pollution there are, a source of pollutants, the pollutants, the transport medium and the target or the receptor which include the ecosystems, individual organisms like man or animal and structures. Pollution threatens environmental sustainability and can have harmful effects on human health. It is a complex and far reaching problem and includes: air pollution, land pollution and water pollution. There are major sources of environmental pollutants and includes: waste disposal, agricultural source, industrial waste-products, military, motor cars wastes, natural pollutants, incidental and atomic & nuclear reactors. There are many factors affecting toxicity of environmental pollutants includes: species, age, health status, previous and dual exposure, pollutant concentration, duration of exposure. Environmental pollutants may cause different types of toxicity: acute and sub acute, chronic toxicity, cumulative toxicity, due to long term exposure to low concentration of cumulative pollutants as DDT, delayed toxicity, after treatment e.g. delayed neurotoxic effects of some organophosphorous compounds and special toxic effects as teratogenic effects, mutagenic effect and carcinogenic effect. The River Nile is the principal fresh water resource in Egypt, supplying Egypt with about 98 percent of its fresh water. Pollution in the River Nile��?s main stem, drains and canals has increased in the last few decades. The River Nile receives wastewater discharges from 124 sources points between Aswan and El-kanater Barrage, of which 67 are agricultural drains and the rest are industrial sources. The Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency reports that the pollution of the surface water in greater Cairo and the province of Beni Suef is a major hazard to all biological systems. Water quality and safety is a critical issue in public health. WHO is giving guidelines for maximum acceptable concentrations of chemicals based on the known toxicity of chemicals as their main scientific basis. Most countries have their own regulation considering the WHO guidelines and also other technical criteria. Qualitative detection of the pollutants, quantitative estimation then comparison of the pollutants with the permissible limit in the polluted area, determination of the pollutants source, toxicological studies on the toxic effect of the pollutants on the man, animal and different living organisms, periodical estimation of the environmental pollutants, environmental evaluation of any project before construction, prevention of further production of detected pollutants and application of the environmental rules as filters and hygienic drainage are the most important points of environmental control.