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Mesenchymal Stem Cells | Peer Reviewed Journals
Journal of Clinical Toxicology

Journal of Clinical Toxicology
Open Access

ISSN: 2161-0495

Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can make several types of cells belonging to our skeletal tissues, such as cartilage, bone and fat. Scientists are investigating how MSCs might be used to treat bone and cartilage diseases. Some MSC research is also exploring therapies for other diseases, but the scientific basis for these applications has not yet been established or widely accepted.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an example of tissue or 'adult' stem cells. They are ‘multipotent’, meaning they can produce more than one type of specialized cell of the body, but not all types. MSCs make the different specialized cells found in the skeletal tissues. For example, they can differentiate − or specialize  −  into cartilage cells (chondrocytes), bone cells (osteoblasts) and fat cells (adipocytes). These specialized cells each have their own characteristic shapes, structures and functions, and each belongs in a particular tissue.

Some early research suggested that MSCs might also differentiate into many different types of cells that do not belong to the skeletal tissues, such as nerve cells, heart muscle cells, liver cells and endothelial cells, which form the inner layer of blood vessels. These results were not confirmed in later studies. In some cases, it appears that the MSCs might have fused together with existing specialized cells, leading to false conclusions about the ability of MSCs to produce certain cell types. In other cases, the results were an artificial effect caused by chemicals used to grow the cells in the lab.

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