Gene Polymorphism | Peer Reviewed Journals

Applied Microbiology: Open Access
Open Access

ISSN: 2471-9315

Gene Polymorphism

A gene is said to be polymorphic if more than one allele occupies that gene's locus within a population.In addition to having more than one allele at a specific locus, each allele must also occur in the population at a rate of at least 1% to generally be considered polymorphic.Gene polymorphisms can occur in any region of the genome. The majority of polymorphisms are silent, meaning they do not alter the function or expression of a gene. Some polymorphism is visible. For example, in dogs the E locus, can have any of five different alleles, known as E, Em, Eg, Eh, and e. Varying combinations of these alleles contribute to the pigmentation and patterns seen in dog coats.A polymorphic variant of a gene can lead to the abnormal expression or to the production of an abnormal form of the protein; this abnormality may cause or be associated with disease. For example, a polymorphic variant of the gene encoding the enzyme CYP4A11, in which thymidine replaces cytosine at the gene's nucleotide 8590 position encodes a CYP4A11 protein that substitutes phenylalanine with serine at the protein's amino acid position 434.This variant protein has reduced enzyme activity in metabolizing arachidonic acid to the blood pressure-regulating eicosanoid, 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. A study has shown that humans bearing this variant in one or both of their CYP4A11 genes have an increased incidence of hypertension, ischemic stroke, and coronary artery disease.

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Relevant Topics in Immunology & Microbiology