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Multiple Skin Ulcerations Revealing a Paraneoplasic Dermatomyositis
Journal of Clinical Trials

Journal of Clinical Trials
Open Access

ISSN: 2167-0870

+44 20 3868 9735

Case Report - (2015) Volume 5, Issue 5

Multiple Skin Ulcerations Revealing a Paraneoplasic Dermatomyositis

El Moussaoui N1*, Abdou A1, Znati K2, Ismaili N1, Benzekri L1, Hassam B1 and Senouci K1
1Dermatology Department, Mohammed v university, CHU Ibn Sina, Ahmed-Balafrej Street, 10 000, Rabat, Morocco, E-mail: [email protected]
2Pathological Anatomy, Mohammed v university, CHU Ibn Sina, Ahmed-Balafrej Street, 10 000, Rabat, Morocco, E-mail: [email protected]
*Corresponding Author: El Moussaoui N, Department of Dermatology, Ibn Sina Hospital, University of Mohammed V-Souissi, Faculty Of Medicine And Pharmacy, Rabat, Morocco, Tel: 00212671114666 Email:

Abstract

Adult dermatomyositis is a rare inflammatory myopathy associated with typical cutaneous lesions and an increased incidence of internal malignancy, notably female genital tract and breast cancers. It presents as a paraneoplastic syndrome in up to 25% of cases. In this report, we present a case of a 68 year old woman presenting a paraneoplastic dermatomyositis revealed by necrotic skin ulcerations. Predictive factors can improve prognosis of dermatomyositis due to earlier diagnosis of associated cancer. In our observation as in litterature review, cutaneous necrosis lesions are highly predictive of an associated neoplasia.

Keywords: Necrotic skin ulcerations; Paraneoplastic dermatomyositis; Breast neoplasma; Predictive factor

Introduction

Dermatomyositis is a form of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy that involves skeletal muscle and skin. Its prognosis is related, firstly, to interstitial lung disease, and also to its association with cancer [1]. We describe a case of paraneoplastic dermatomyositis associated with breast neoplasma previously unknown.

Case Report

A 68 year old Moroccan woman presented with a 3 month history of necrotic skin ulcerations affecting her arms and upper trunk. The evolution was marked by the installation of a pruritic rash and profound muscle weakness of the upper arms and shoulders that progressed rapidly to involve the lower extremities, totally disabling her. Physical examination found five ulcers on upper extremities, chest (Figure 1) and abdomen whose size varies between 2 mm and 5 cm, cutaneous lesions that were erythematous, slightly scaly, macular, and papular, involving the neck (Figure 2), upper chest, arms, and hands. There was violaceous facial erythema with a heliotrope eyelid rash.

clinical-trials-Two-necrotic-ulcers

Figure 1: Two necrotic ulcers of left arm.

clinical-trials-ulceratives-lesions

Figure 2: Erythema surmounted by ulceratives lesions.

Laboratory tests showed inflammation (leukocytosis 17300/mm3, inflammatory anemia 9 g/dl), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were twice the normal, creatine kinase (CPK) and cratinuria were normal. Electromyograma revealed increased insertional activity and spontaneous fibrillations. Muscle biopsy showed a keratinocyte necrosis. In front of the acute onset of symptoms, the presence of necrotic ulcers and itching, neoplastic origin was suspected. Mammography coupled to ultrasound detected a lesion measuring 15 mm × 17 mm classified -according to the ACR BIRADS 5® Atlas (ACR: American College of Radiology), at the the right breast. Histolopathological examination was in favor of infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Abdominopelvic scan and scintigraphy does not objectify metastasis. The diagnosis of paraneoplastic dermatomyositis secondary to breast carcinoma stage I was confirmed. The patient was started on prednisone 80 mg/day. She was dead three days later by pulmonary embolism.

Discussion

The diagnosis of dermatomyositis and breast cancer is done simultaneously. The association between dermatomyositis and visceral malignancy was described for the first time in 1916 by Stertz [2]. Published studies report a wide variation in the estimated risk of malignancy in patients with dermatomyositis, ranging from 6 to 60% [3]. The risk increases with age, black race, acute onset, male gender, pruritus, refractoriness to systemic steroid therapy, a sedimentation>40 mm in the first hour. In our case, the impairment of the general condition may be part of dermatomyositis as well as cancer. While the presence of necrotic ulcers represents a specific clinical element for neoplastic origin [4-6].

Gynecological cancers represent 33% of all cancers including breast cancers (17%), ovarian cancers (9%) and uterine cancers (7%) [3]. Therefore, routine screening should be made in women over 40 years by gynecological examination, mammography, ultrasound or pelvic tomography and vaginal smear [7].

Infiltrating ductal carcinoma represents 75% of all breast cancers [5,6]. The tumor corresponds to a stellar lesion, badly limited. histology shows Atypical tumor cells form ribbons, tubules or nests, broke the basement membrane of the duct and infiltrate the surrounding tissues. the 5 year survival rates are about 80%. The treatment combines surgery, radiotherapy and medical treatment. Indications are posed by stage and development of the tumor, patient's general condition and the availability of treatment.

The diagnosis of dermatomyositis requires an etiological investigation in search of a paraneoplastic origin. The presence of skin necrosis lesions constitutes a specific predictive factor.

References

  1. Luo YB, Mastaglia FL (2015) Dermatomyositis, polymyositis and immune-mediated necrotising myopathies. BiochimBiophysActa 1852:622-632.
  2. Chandesris MO, Durand JM, Gamby T, Saadallah-Bouchemot N, Jean R, et al. (2005) Dermatomyositis with cutaneous necrosis revealing a fallopian tube carcinoma. La Revue de M
  3. Mebazaa A, Boussen H, Nouira R, Gamoudi A, Rahal K, et al. (2001) Dermatomyositis and breast cancer: a multicenter Tunisian retrospective study of 13 cases. Tunis Med 89:18-22.
  4. Fardet L, Gain M, Kettaneh A, Cherin P, Morel P, et al. (2009) Facteurspr
  5. Stockton D, Doherty VR, Brewster DH (2001) Risk of cancer in patients with dermatomyositis or polymyositis, and follow-up implications: a scottish population-based cohort study. Br J Cancer 85:41-45.
Citation: El Moussaoui N, Abdou A, Znati K, Ismaili N, Benzekri L, et al. (2015) Multiple Skin Ulcerations Revealing a Paraneoplasic Dermatomyositis. J Clin Trials 5:239.

Copyright: © 2015 El Moussaoui N, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.