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Fungal Genomics & Biology

Fungal Genomics & Biology
Open Access

ISSN: 2165-8056

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Short Commentary - (2020)Volume 10, Issue 1

Fungal Bioremediation of Aromatic Amines Contaminated Environments

Dênis P. de Lima*
 
*Correspondence: Dênis P. de Lima, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Costa e Silva - Pioneiros, MS, Brazil, Tel: +55 67 3345 3676, Email:

Author info »

Commentary

Biotransformation can be a valuable tool for diminishing toxicity of organic compounds. The technique makes use of plants, microorganisms or, their isolated enzymes to treat contaminated environmental. Example of important and dangerous pollutants are the toxic aromatic amines (AA). Some of these compounds are water or soil residues from herbicides. The application of fungi as detoxification agents for AA is still scarce in comparison with bacteria [1].

The species of filamentous fungi of genus Trichoderma and Aspergillus are important producers of enzymes capable to perform N-acetylation, which is a mechanism for reducing AA toxicity. Our research group has been working with fungi isolated from Brazilian Cerrado and Pantanal special biomes. The strains of the genus Aspergillus and Cladosporium were selected and tested for N- acetylation of the residue from herbicide diuron, named 3,4-dichloroaniline, at a maximum tolerate concentration of 500 μM [2].

The successful results merits additional evaluation aiming at the application of these microorganisms as a biotechnological tool for bioremediation of AA polluted environment.The pollution level over the years encompasses a direct relationship to industrial growth. Currently, it's the chief environment-related explanation for diseases and premature death in the world. Annually, pollution ends up in higher variety of deaths than all the wars and violence, tobacco, hunger, natural disasters, AIDS, TB and, malaria [3].

Aromatic compounds represent the second most plentiful family of organic components gift within the part. Aromatic amines (AAs) and their derivatives ar highly harmful compounds oftentimes free into the setting. Their major sources comprise distinct industrial sectors like dyes, oil purification, cosmetics, medicines, rubber, agrochemicals, textiles, intermediate chemicals for making ready artificialpolymers, adhesives, prescription drugs, pesticides and explosives [4].

As a results of these many uses, they're gift in numerous environments, like in air, water and soil thereby inflicting a possible to living organisms exposure. Improper handling and poor industrial waste disposal of those compounds, will destroy natural resources and cause damage to the setting. The AAs could influence carcinogenicity by generating genotoxic and cytotoxic metabolites and by directly stimulating factors of growth signal pathways [5]. Several AAs have high water solubility creating them show high perviousness in the soil and enter to water cycle in many forms, either in chemical effluents or as the breakdown merchandise of various origins. Classical chemical and physical ways haven't been satisfactory to treat ecosystems containing harmful chemicals. Therefore, bioremediation has emerged as a sustainable and recognized innovative technology to tackle contaminants.

Bioremediation uses microorganism metabolism within the presence of such as conditions to degrade pollutants. Both, in place (treatment on-site) or ex-situ (pollutant is removed to be treated elsewhere), ar valuable approach in accordance to evalns of the cost, web site characteristics, type, and concentration of pollutants. Generally, in situ bioremediation techniques comprise processes that explore correction of pollutants using microorganisms native to the contaminated region [6]. However, there ar processes involving air flux application so as to extend the microorganism activity. for example, the bioventing, bioslurping, phytoremediation and, leaky reactive barrier that uses of flora biobarriers to get rid of water pollutants, for instance, the flora Trametes versicolor. As for ex situ techniques, we are able to mention processes like biopile and windrow that ar similar. In these cases, the contaminated soil is removed and concentrated to be submitted to aeration and irrigation so as to extend the being activity.

Indeed, fungal bioremediation of pollutant AAs is a very promising tool as these organisms produce XME to execute essential transformations such as redox, hydrolysis and, Nacetylation reactions. The technique is biofriendly without involving the use of toxic solvents or harmful chemical catalyzers. A chief point to consider in fungal bioremediation is the selection of the species that will accomplish the job [7]. The fungi may present extraordinary tolerance and bioremediation capacity; nonetheless, they also may be pathogens of plant and animals such as some species of genera Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus spp., thus impairing their utilization. Commonly, it is necessary to make refined proposals for fungal metabolic pathways to degrade contaminants such as the AAs. Studies of enzymatic activity allied with metabolites characterization are fundamental for this assessment and, corroborate to estimate the bioremediation efficacy. Furthermore, it is quite prudent to conduct toxicity assays with the formed products to verify their impact on the environment because they might show higher [8].

References

  1. Azubuike CC, Chikere CB, Okpokwasili GC. Bioremediation techniques-classification based on site of application: Principles, advantages, limitations and prospects. World J Microbiol Biotechnol.2016;32:1-18.
  2. Woo YT, Lai DY. Aromatic amino and nitro – amino compounds and their halogenated derivatives. 2012;7(2):1-5.
  3. Rhodes CJ. Mycoremediation (bioremediation with fungi) – growing mushrooms to clean the earth. Chem Spec Bioavailab. 2014;26(3):196-198.
  4. Silber J, Kramer A, Labes A, Tasdemir D. From discovery to production: Biotechnology of marine fungi for the production of new antibiotics.Mar Drugs. 2016;14(7):1-20.
  5. Nielsen JC, Nielsen J. Development of fungal cell factories for the production of secondary metabolites: Linking genomics and metabolism. Synth Syst Biotechnol. 2017;2(3):5-12.
  6. Ghosal D, Ghosh S, Dutta TK, Ahn Y. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review, Front Microbiol. 2016;7:1-27.
  7. Harms H,Schlosser D,Wick LY. Untapped potential: Exploiting fungi in bioremediation of hazardous chemicals, Nat Rev Microbiol. 2011;9:177-192.
  8. Martins LR, Lyra FH, Rugani MM, Takahashi JA. Bioremediation of metallic ions by eight Penicillium species, J Environ Eng. 22016;142(9):1-8.

Author Info

Dênis P. de Lima*
 
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Costa e Silva - Pioneiros, MS, Brazil
 

Citation: De Lima PD (2020) Fungal Bioremediation of Aromatic Amines Contaminated Environments. Fungal Genom Biol. 10:164.

Received: 20-May-2020 Accepted: 05-Jun-2020 Published: 12-Jun-2020 , DOI: 10.35248/2165-8056.20.10.164

Copyright: © 2020 De Lima PD, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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