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Family Medicine & Medical Science Research

Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
Open Access

ISSN: 2327-4972

Short Review - (2020)Volume 9, Issue 2

Exploring Dos and Don'ts to Corona Virus Exposure

Dr Hamzullah Khan*
 
*Correspondence: Dr Hamzullah Khan, Hematology Department, Director Research & Development, Nowshera Medical College, Pakistan, Tel: 0334-4802902, Email:

Author info »

Editorial

Scientists with their previous experience of viral epidemics in the form of SARS in 2002 and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome MERS in 2012 helped them somehow in understanding the epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment of COVID-19. COVID-19 was first reported to the WHO office on 31st Dec 2019, from Wuhan, a metropolitan city in the province of Hubei China [1].

In Pakistan the virus entered on 26th February, 2020, when Government of Pakistan officially declared a student of university of Karachi diagnosed as COVID-19 positive, with a travel history of Iran [2]. In Pakistan the literature so for covering the prevalence and incidence is deficient and we found no published data, In Pakistan the so for reported data from government sources declares 11940 confirmed cases with 253 deaths Punjab is the province with highest number of corona cases crossing 5000 [3].

There is limited known about the clinical features, presentation and even the incubation period of this deadly virus, which has an impact on the control and surveillance of an infectious disease. The incubation period of the 2019-nCoV is reported from 6 days to 12 days [4]. The risky populations are close contacts of COVID-19 infected patients, healthcare workers, family members of infected patients. A study from the mainland China reported that the infectivity ratio was (89%) in family members and other close contacts of COVID-19 patients [5].

To facilitate the healthcare workers working in COVID-19 clinics, management and administration of district Nowshera, of KP state of Pakistan to handle suspects, we thought of to give facts and figures on the impact of positive contact history and its correlation with 2019-nCoV infectivity, and hence we followed few clinical interventions.

History of contact with positive COVID-19 patients was contributing in 62/78(79.48%) confirmed cases. We observed that 55/78(70.51%) of the positive cases had a contact history > 5 days. However this risk of infection is at 3.85% when the duration of exposure is reduced to up to 3 hours approximately. The difference in the duration of contact and its relation with COVID-19 infection in term of positivity of test by PCR was highly statistically significant using Chi-Square test (p=0.001) in Table 1. The rate of infectivity depends widely on the incubation period that is reported between 2-14 days in the literature and also on the duration of exposure and also on the immune status of the patient to acquire infection [6].

Chances of Viral infectivity vs duration of contact with exposure to a COVID-19 Positive patient
  Duration of contact Total
2-5 hours 48 hours 3-5 days >5 days Not remembered No Contact
PCR Categories Positive 3 7 6 49 3 10 78
Negative 13 20 90 15 6 23 165
Total 16 27 96 64 9 33 243
Chi-Square test p=0.001 Reliability Index for duration>5 days (%) 70.51 Reliability Index for duration<3 hours (%) 3.85

Table 1: Chances of Viral infectivity vs duration of contact with exposure to a COVID-19 Positive patient.

The message is to “STAY AT HOME”, Contact history especially to an infected COVID-19 positive person increase the chances of getting infection with 2019-nCoV. Therefore it is suggested that special care should be given to suspects with close contact history with COVID-19 patients.

References

  1. Guo YR, Cao QD, Hong ZS, Tan YY, Chen SD, Jin HJ, et al. The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak-an update on the status. Mil Med Res 2020; 7(1):11.
  2. Arab News, "Pakistan prepares to fight back as two coronavirus cases emerge in country". Arab News Pakistan Feb 2020.
  3. Govt. of Pakistan, Coronavirus in Pakistan - Confirmed Cases". www.covid.gov.pk/. 2020.
  4. 4.Backer JA, Klinkenberg D, Wallinga J. Incubation period of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infections among travellers from Wuhan, China, 20-28 January 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020; 25.
  5. 5.Qiu H, Wu J, Hong L, Luo Y, Song Q et al. Clinical and epidemiological features of 36 children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID). The Lancet, Mar 2020; 3099(20): 30198-5.
  6. 6.De-Vitis R, Passiatore M, Perna A, Proietti L, Taccardo G. COVID-19 contagion and contamination through hands of trauma patients: What risks and what precautions? J Hosp Infect. 2020; S0195-6701(20): 30175-30184.

Author Info

Dr Hamzullah Khan*
 
1Hematology Department, Hematology Department, Nowshera Medical College, Pakistan
Pakistan
 

Citation: Khan H (2020). Exploring Dos and Don'ts to Corona Virus Exposure. Fam Med Med Sci Res 9: 250.

Received: 18-Jul-2020 Accepted: 24-Jul-2020 Published: 31-Jul-2020 , DOI: 10.35248/2327-4972.20.9.250

Copyright: © 2020 Khan H. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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