International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Open Access

ISSN: 2329-9096

Naglaa Hussein

Department of Physical Medicine, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

  • Mini Review   
    Cigarette Smoking: A Cardiovascular risk; Assessment and Intervention: Literature Review
    Author(s): Naglaa Hussein* and Matthew Bartels

    Even though we don’t know exactly which smokers will develop CVD from smoking, the best thing all smokers can do for their hearts is to quit. Smokers who quit start to improve their heart health and reduce their risk for CVD immediately. Within a year, the risk of heart attack drops dramatically, and even people who have already had a heart attack can cut their risk of having another if they quit smoking. Within five years of quitting, smokers lower their risk of stroke to about that of a person who has never smoked. However, studies have reported that smoking increases the risk of CVD beyond the effects of smoking on other risk factors. In other words, the risk attributable to smoking persisted even when adjustments were made for differences between persons who smoke and nonsmokers in levels of these other risk factors... View More»
    DOI: 10.35248/2329-9096.21.s5.005

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