Institute of Applied Chemistry, Oldenburg University,
How are Waste Entirely Avoided in Solid-State Productions?
Author(s): Gerd KauppGerd Kaupp
The mechanism, synthetic application, scaling, and industrial production with gas-solid and solid-solid reactions without producing wastes is outlined. These reactions profit from lowered activation energy (with respect to melt reactions), favorable kinetics with definite end of reaction, and mostly reaction specificity giving only one product in pure form without workup necessity. They proceed thus solventless (not only "solvent free") and wasteless. The bargain of the solid-state should not be given up by heating to melt (e.g., milling without temperature control) or by "adding a little solvent". Molecular (or ionic) solid-state reactions, be they gas-solid or solid-solid, profit from the presence of cleavage- planes, channels or voids for intracrystalline long-range anisotropic molecular migrations. Such release of internal local pressure upon chemical change is essential. This is exp.. View More»