Virology & Mycology

Virology & Mycology
Open Access

ISSN: 2161-0517



Zika Virus Historical Spatiotemporal Distribution and Potential Risk Factors [1900-2018]: Review

Hiko A, Duguma B and Muktar Y

This paper is aimed to assess Zika virus (ZIKV) spatiotemporal historical distribution, the potential mechanisms and contributing risk factors for epidemic emerging, the attempt to mitigate, and its future aspect. Available literature from the years 1900 to 2018 were assessed and compiled.

Previous analyses on the partial structural envelope as well as the non-structural proteins gene sequences suggests the occurrence of ZIKV strains ancestor erstwhile in the beginning of 1900s in Uganda. Infection with the virus was also first reported in Uganda since 1947. It gradually distributed to different countries in the world until the present 2018. It was found that ZIKV has multifactorial health challenges from several corners. Its epidemiology has wide reservoirs, susceptible and vector hosts, and different mode of transmission. The potential mechanisms of epidemic occurrences are viral evolution changes in mosquito, presence of human viremia and immunity in endemic exposures, and stochastic introduction to new areas. Moreover, climate change which disrupts health security and sociology-economy favors vector mosquito make ZIKV adaptation and causes global emerging epidemics. Presence of global travel with possibility of human-to-human transmission, urban area preference of the vector mosquito, and climate change adaptation of both the virus and the vector are core current risk for the epidemic. Presence of crossreactors, absence of both therapeutic drug and vaccine (the only promising future vaccine being ZIKV sub-unit recombinant biotechnology) were exacerbating the risk of Zika infections. The present sole preventive strategy is vector control.

Therefore, defined and prioritized research on the epidemiology, diagnostic techniques, therapeutic drug and preventive vaccine development are recommended. Burst feed transmission should be checked. Capacity building on diagnostic laboratories and risk communication are relevant for developing countries.