+44 7868 792050
Background: Acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome, during the course of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, is a rare entity. In such a situation, most previous cases were therapy-related after treatment. However, in very rare cases, acute myeloid leukemia has been diagnosed in untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Materials and Methods: In this paper, we present the case-study of a 60-year old woman who was diagnosed six years previously as being afflicted with chronic lymphocytic leukemia with no chromosomal changes. She was successfully treated with fludarabine in combination with cyclophosphamide and rituximab, and she obtained complete remission, yet with incomplete recovery. Subsequently, three years later, she was re-admitted to hospital with deep pancytopenia. Her bone marrow biopsy then revealed that 52% of her blasts cells demonstrated a myelomonocytic immunophenotype, albeit with no chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell clone, showing the following complex chromosomal abnormalities: 45~47, XX, del(5)(q13q33), trisomy 8, trisomy 20, monosomy 21, +mar[cp12]/46, XX. Thus, a diagnosis was made of acute myelomonocytic leukemia preceded by a transforming myelodysplastic syndrome. The patient received induction chemotherapy and obtained complete remission. Unfortunately, one month after completion of her consolidation regimen, a relapse occurred. She died 8 months post-diagnosis of AML. Conclusion: In this case study, we diagnosed therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia. Of note, the theory of a common stem cell malignancy and the coexistence of two malignant clones seem not to be applied in the presented case. This is because an acute myeloid leukemia clone was not seen in her bone marrow, nor was peripheral blood evidenced at the time of her diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.