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Introduction: Maternal mental health has been considered a global health issue by many health partners. Studies have shown that about 10% of pregnant women and 13% of post-partum mothers experience one form of mental health disorders, especially depression. In developing countries, almost 16% of pregnant women and 19.8% women experience depression after childbirth. The prevalence rate of Post-Partum Depression (PPD) in the northern part of Ghana was estimated as 33.5% in 2018 and 16.8% in 2019. PPD has been linked to poor health seeking habits during and after pregnancy, leading to poor birth outcomes. We aimed at identifying prevalence rate of PPD and its adverse effects on pregnancy and birth outcomes in Tano North Municipality.
Methods: An institutional records and child welfare books were reviewed alongside a survey. An analytical cross-sectional design was employed for this study using quantitative methods. The Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale [EPDS] was used to screen mothers who utilized the postnatal services at the Municipal Hospital (St. John of God Hospital, Duayaw Nkwanta) for this study. Three-hundred and eighty-six respondents were selected using purposive and systematic sampling technique. The questionnaire used for this study constituted the demographic characteristics of postpartum women and standard 10 points questions from [EPDS].
Results: Results from the study depicts that 44% of the respondents were within the ages of 31-40 years, and 43.8% with ages 21-30 years. Majority (39.9%) of the women had no formal education. Majority (79.8%) of the respondents was married and 75.13% employed. On severity range of PPD, 69.4% of the postpartum women were mildly depressed, 8.6% moderately depressed and 1.3% severely depressed. Ante natal attendance was 74.9% for women who visited ANC within the 1st trimester and 22.0% within the 2nd trimester. Logistic analysis showed that not being married (AOR=6.198, 95% CI=2.926-13.128), unemployed (AOR=1.587, 95% CI=0.778-3.235), women with 3-4 children were associated with increased risk of developing PPD. Complications in birth outcomes included babies with low birth weight (13.5%), 19.7% mild asphyxia and 11.9% severe asphyxia.
Conclusion: PPD was prevalent among 14.8% of postpartum mothers involved in the study, Socio-demographic factors of being single, unemployed and having 3-4 children were positive predictors of the condition. Obstetric risk factors of experiencing pregnancy and/or birth complications, having had a stillbirth and having had a baby born with weight less than 2.5 kg were also found to positively associate with the occurrence of PPD. We recommend early case detection and holistic treatment of cases in among women with PPD.
Published Date: 2023-07-07; Received Date: 2023-06-06