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The most common type of arthritic disease, Osteoarthritis (OA), affects the load-bearing joints, such as the knee and hip. It is also recognised as a major source of joint discomfort and dysfunction in older persons, contributing to a lower quality of life. Articular cartilage, subchondral bone, and synovium are just a few of the tissues that can be affected by OA. Sclerosis, cyst, and osteophyte formation on plain x-ray, as well as Bone Marrow Lesions (BMLs) on magnetic resonance imaging, are all radiological characteristics of osteoarthritic subchondral bone that have been proved to highlight the anomalies of bone mineralization. Increased bone turnover with an increase in osteoblastic over osteoclastic activities is thought to cause sclerosis and the production of osteophytes. Sclerostin, periostin, and Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP-1) signalling abnormalities are thought to be linked to BMLs and sclerosis. Meanwhile, cysts surrounding by less mineralized bone and osteoid development uncoupled from mineralization could indicate that Wnt/catenin signalling and the OPG/RANKL/ RANK pathway differentially regulate osteoblasts and osteoclasts geographically.
Published Date: 2021-09-30; Received Date: 2021-09-11