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Agriculture is a key driver of Ethiopia’s long-term growth and food security. It directly supports 85 percent of the population, constitutes 43 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 80 percent of export value. Nearly,16 percent of GOE’s public expenditures are committed to the sector. However, sustainable productivity of the agricultural sector is threatened by newly emerging insect pests and diseases in the country in general and western Oromiya.This paper discusses on a newly emerging agricultural pest (Diseases and Insects) as a challenge of crop production in western Oromiya. The area is known by maize, mango and ginger production in the country. However, production of these crops was becoming under risk due to Maize Lethal Necrotic Virus Diseases (MLN) of maize, Leaf and Fruit Spot of citrus (Pseudocercosporaangolensis), Bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum) of ginger, Tomato leaf miner of tomato (Tutaabsoluta) and White Mango scale insect (Aulacaspistubercularis) of mangoes. Currently, these pests were key agricultural pests which are introduced recently in the area. Because of these sever damage up to 95% loss of mangos in east Wollega zone due to white mango scale. In addition, MLN caused a serious yield loss on maize in 2013/14 cropping season in the country. Hence, these pests are now seen as severely attacking crops and they are challenges to the country. These pests were considered as threat to the growth and development of the western parts of Oromiya. Thousands of smallholder farmers in western Oromiya suffer from food insecurity due to lack of the requisite education, information, training and management strategies regard to alien and resident crop pests. Therefore, more investment in improving plant protection is needed to ensure long term food security of the region and establishment of strong quarantine to protect the entrance of new insect pests and diseases were highly needed in the country.