Bone remodelling is the ongoing process of osteoblasts and osteoclasts working together to regenerate the adult skeleton. The nuclear factor RANK, which is expressed on the surface of osteoblasts, and its ligand RANKL, which is expressed on the surface of osteoclasts, work together to control bone remodelling. Inflammation, which is a common symptom of sickness and injury, plays a key role in skewing this process toward resorption. It does so via altering the expression of RANK and RANKL through the interaction of inflammatory mediators and their associated peptides with osteoblasts and osteoclasts, as well as other immune cells. TNF, glucocorticoids, histamine, bradykinin, PGE2, systemic RANKL from immune cells, and interleukins 1 and 6 are examples of chemical mediators. The result of this process is defined by conditions such as periodontal disease and alveolar bone erosion, aseptic prosthesis loosening, rheumatoid arthritis, and some sports-related injuries. Improved management and outcomes of bone-related diseases require a complete understanding of bone response to injury and disease, as well as the ability to detect such biomarkers, as well as imaging to detect early structural and mechanical property changes in bone architecture.
Published Date: 2021-12-29; Received Date: 2021-12-10