Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing science of producing and utilizing the nano-sized particles. It was necessary to develop another non-toxic and environmentally friendly procedure for production of nanoparticles by mean of green technology to avoid production of the hazardous chemicals (sodium borohydride, sodium citrate, ascorbate, elemental hydrogen, Tollen’s reagent, N,N-dimethyl formamide and poly (ethylene glycol) block copolymers) produced during the chemical preparation. The metal nanoparticles (MNPs) (silver, gold, platinum, copper and zinc oxide) were biosynthesized through the reaction with plant extract by bio-reduction mechanism. Among all noble MNPs, the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are non-toxic and gained boundless interests due to their characteristic properties in addition to their significant antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory effects.
The UV-Vis Spectrophotometer, X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) are considered as the most widely used techniques for characterization of the synthesized nanoparticles.
Incorporation of the AgNPs into the plant extracts enhanced the antioxidant properties due to increasing the total polyphenolic compounds which exhibit more antioxidant potentials and possesses significant cytotoxicity and free radical scavenging activity than the crude ones. It was revealed that deposition of the nanoparticles was greatest in liver followed by blood, spleen, kidney, lungs, brain, reproductive organs, thymus and heart. Removal of the nanoparticles from the body through renal clearance is considered as a multifaceted process. The review concluded that it is necessary for undergoing further studies to evaluate the deleterious effects that may be occurred as a result of administration of the nanoparticulated extracts.