Dragana Jovanovic, Anna Rich, Natalija Samardzic, Spasoje Popevic, Ljiljana Markovic-Denic, Vesna Skodric-Trifunovic, Marina Roksandic Milenkovic, Semra Bilaceroglu, Milija Gajic, Vesna Ceriman, Ivana Vukanic and Branislav Ilic
Setting: Endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) is a chronic, often unrecognized form of the disease with a complicated clinical course and significant airway complications.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate common clinical features amongst individuals with bronchoscopic biopsy proven EBTB during a 20 year period in Serbia.
Design: An observational study of 212 patients with bronchoscopic biopsy proven EBTB between January 1993 and December 2012. Retrospective case note review was undertaken, including all clinical, microbiological and radiological evidence, at the University Hospital of Pulmonology, Belgrade.
Results: All patients were caucasian and HIV-negative, with a male to female ratio of 1.28:1. Every patient had an abnormal chest X-ray. The most common endoscopic features were oedematous hypereamic (39.2%) and nonspecific bronchitis (35.8%). Microbiological culture rate was 64.6%. Sputum culture was positive in 55.2%, bronchial washing culture positive in 36.8%, and both in 27.4%.
Conclusion: Most patients with EBTB have concurrent pulmonary lesions. Bronchoscopy is an essential diagnostic tool for EBTB. Early diagnosis and early onset of therapy is of crucial importance to prevent the development of bronchostenosis.