Leonardo S Roever-Borges and Resende ES
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Patients with COPD and the metabolic syndrome, sedentary lifestyle, skeletal muscle dysfunction, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypoxemia, endothelial dysfunction have increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD contributes to hospitalization in patients with COPD and to mortality. This review describes the various components of CVD and its impact in COPD patients.