Broadcasting of urea in prilled form is a common method of field application of fertilizer that is used in Rwanda as well as all over the world. This method results in loss of 35% nitrogen through, either being profited by weeds, leaching, runoff, de-nitrification and high cost incurred by farmers, to buy excess fertilizers and ultimately poor yield of rice. This study was conducted in Ntende marshland, Rugarama sector of Gatsibo District with the main objective of comparing the effect of prilled and briquette urea on soil quality and rice production, variety Yun yin used. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with three treatments and three replications.
The results from research have shown that: Nitrogen content increased from 0.17 to 0. 23% in Plot without urea (PWUB) and from 0.17 to 0.19% in plot without urea prilled (PWUP) and decreased in control from 0.17 to 0.11%, the best plant height of 117.77 cms was observed in PWUB and compared to PWUP (111.4 cms) and treatments were significantly different (P ≤ 0.001) and PWUB recorded highest means of 2.7 tillers followed by PWUP with 25.7 tillers. The grain yield and weight of 1000 grains weight were significantly different (P ≤ 0.001) and highest yield was recorded in PWUB (7.43 t/ha) compared to prilled form of urea (5.81 t/ha) and the lowest yield was recorded in control plot with a yield of 3.16 t/ha. The highest grain yield was observed in plots treated with urea in briquette form with 7.34 per hectare compared to those where urea was applied in prilled form with 5.81 and the least results were observed in control with 3.16 t/ha. Hence, applying urea briquette in paddy plantation should be sensitized and adopted by rice farmers, since the application of 65 Kg N/ha of briquette urea improved soil properties and rice productivity over 80 Kg N/ha of prilled urea.