The study was conducted with the aim of assessing the effectiveness of community based anti-poaching operation as well as perception of local people towards CBAPO in the buffer zone of Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve, Kanchanpur, Nepal. Purposive sampling was adopted for selection of CBAPO unit. Key informant interview (n=21), structured multiple response questionnaire survey with CBAPO member (n=94), focus group discussion, review of the records of concerned stakeholders were used to obtain data. Non-parametric Friedman Test was used for ranking different issue and Chi-Square test was used to see the association in their perception of CBAPO members on different aspect at 5% level of significance. Unemployment (μ= 2.44) and low awareness level among the people (μ=3.27) were seen as the key cause of poaching and other illegal activities. Patrolling, surveillance and information gathering against illegal activities, rescue of wildlife and awareness raising activities were the major activities of CBAPO which has significantly contributed in wildlife conservation. Poaching was found to be decreased consequently. Success behind CBAPO was due to support of park and other supporting agencies, however financial dearth was observed as the greatest hindrance to strengthen operation. People’s perception differs significantly (P<0.05) regarding performance of CBAPO. The morale of the CBAPO members needs to be boost up through motivation, incentives, proper guidance, anti-poaching trainings, proper equipment’s, security assurance, reward and encouragement for the better conservation results in days to come.