Caesalpinia bonduc L. is a pivotal medicinal plant that belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The plant is widely distributed found throughout India especially in the coastal areas. It is extensively used in traditional medical systems such as Ayurveda, Siddha, Homoeopathy, and Unani. It is regarded as a valuable remedy for the treatment of numerous ailments in Indian traditional plant medicine. It is a unique medicinal plant used in conventional medicine because all plant parts have therapeutic properties. The plant has been reported to hold several pharmacological and medicinal properties such as anticancer, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antipyretic, antifertility, anti-inflammatory and antimalarial etc. C. bonduc seeds contain cassane diterpenoids like caesalpinins and caesalmins, as well as norcassane diterpenoids such norcaesalpinins. Cassane diterpenoids (e.g. taepeenins A-L) and norcassane diterpenoids (e.g. nortaepeenins A & B) have been isolated from the stems, roots, and seeds. Leaves include phenolic acids such as caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and gallic acid. This species has been found to contain numerous biologically and pharmacologically relevant bioactive secondary metabolites with unique structures and diverse mechanisms of action, which may entice pharmaceutical companies to produce novel therapeutic formulations based on herbal methods. With more research, it is possible to infer that C. bonduc could become the most acceptable source of medicine in the future for an array of illnesses. As a result, this review aims to provide a full overview of ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of C. bonduc.
Published Date: 2021-07-16; Received Date: 2021-06-26