This study was carried out to investigate the anti-plasmodial effect of Moringa oleifera seeds in Plasmodium berghei infected albino rats to affirm its traditional use in the treatment of malaria in Nigeria and some African countries. The pods of this plant were collected from a garden in Port Harcourt, Nigeria and authenticated by a taxonomist. The seed were dried under shade, deshelled, crushed into powder and extracted with 99% ethanol using rotary evaporator and water bath. Phytochemical investigation was conducted on the powdered seeds using standard method to determine the presence of the bioactive compounds and oral acute toxicity test was also carried out using the modified method of Karber. The in-vivo anti-plasmodial effect of the plant extract of Moringa oleifera (200, 300 and 500 mg/kg), Artemether/Lumefantrine (A/L), Artesunate/Mefloquine (A/M) and Chloroquine (CQ) against chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei in infected albino rats (120-130 g) were investigated using a 4 day range test for curative effect and prophylactic model. Standard methods were used to determine the percentage parasitemia. A non-dose dependent significant (P<0.05) parasitemia suppression was discovered after an oral treatment with the ethanol extract of the seed plant at different dose levels as compared to the control group. However, 300 mg-kg-1 (72.56 ± 1.75%) of the extracts exhibited a relatively higher chemosupression compared to 200 mg-kg-1 (78.55 ± 2.42%), 300 mg-kg-1 (79.15 ± 0.72%) and 500 mg-kg-1 (77.60 ± 1.53%). The standard anti-malarial used in this study showed the higher chemosupression. The phytochemical analysis also revealed the presence of the following bioactive components such as Saponins, Alkaloid and Flavonoids etc. The ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera seeds demonstrated a high anti--plasmodial activity against P. berghei in albino rats and affirms Moringa oleifera as a potential source of effective and safe herbal therapeutic agent in trado-medical practice for the treatment of fever, pain and malaria in Nigeria.
Published Date: 2020-01-17; Received Date: 2019-12-02