Neha Singh and Pooja Yadav
Most important concern for software development in recent time is developing unswerving and robust software. Testing process collects information related to the software and promises the software quality. Software testing aims to find the capability of the software by evaluating each attribute and determine whether it is able to get the required result. It is extensively deployed by testers as it is vital to determine software quality, but software testing still remains an art, due to limited understanding of the principles of software. Testing is more than just debugging. The difficulty arises because of highly complex programs which cannot be tested with moderate complexity. The rationale of testing can be verification, validation, estimating reliability and quality assurance. Software testing involves numerous activities to be done during development cycle and faces lot of challenges. A consistent roadmap of most relevant challenges is proposed here. In it, the starting point is constituted by some important past achievements, while the destination consists of two major identified goals to which research ultimately leads, but which remains as reachable as goals. The routes from the achievements to the goals are paved by outstanding research challenges, which are discussed in the paper along with the ongoing work. Typically, a network service provider offers best-effort service to customers and Quality of Service (QoS) is provided only by network over provisioning. When traffic bursts cause congestion, this default approach does not always provide an acceptable solution. As the trend in networking is convergence of voice, video and data, it is important to differentiate traffic into high and low priority classes through QoS mechanisms. To deliver differentiated QoS, the routers utilize classification and sometimes remarking of the traffic. Based on service agreements with the customer, a certain class of traffic is then given more resources by the router. Evaluation of the results of these methods and approaches on the network performance is very important to device designers, network evaluators, network administrators, network operators and others involved.