Germination is the process of seeds developing into new plants. First, environmental conditions must trigger the seed to grow. Usually, this is determined by how deep the seed is planted, water availability, and temperature. When water is plentiful, the seed fills with water in a process called imbibition. The water activates special proteins, called enzymes, that begin the process of seed growth. First the seed grows a root to access water underground. Next, the shoots, or growth above ground, begin to appear. The seed sends a shoot towards the surface, where it will grow leaves to harvest energy from the sun. The leaves continue to grow towards the light source in a process called photomorphogenesis. Below is a seed emerging from the ground during germination. Several factors influence if, and how, seeds germinate. The most important factors are water availability, temperature and sunlight. Water is crucial to seed germination. The seed must go through imbibition to activate root growth. However, too much water can be a bad thing, as most gardeners know. When a plant is still growing underground, during root formation, it cannot use the sun to make food, like grown plants do. It must rely on the stored food inside the seed, and oxygen from the environment to make energy. If the soil is too soggy, there will not be enough oxygen and the plant will not thrive.
Related journals to germination:
Journal of Biofertilizers & Biopesticides, Journal of Biodiversity, Bioprospecting and Development, Research & Reviews: Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Journal of Food: Microbiology, Safety & Hygiene