Anti-malaria activities of selected plants and gas chromatography | 52588
Journal of Clinical Toxicology

Journal of Clinical Toxicology
Open Access

ISSN: 2161-0495

+44 1478 350008

Anti-malaria activities of selected plants and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer chemical profiling of aqueous bark extract of Prosopis africana (Guill &Perr)

4th Global Summit on Toxicology

August 24-26, 2015 Philadelphia, USA

Adetutu Adewale1, Abubakar1, 2, Fatimah Aluko2 and Olorunnisola O Olubukola1

Scientific Tracks Abstracts: J Clin Toxicol

Abstract :

Background: The development of resistance to currently known conventional anti-malaria drugs has necessitated search into more
potent and less toxic anti-malaria drugs of plant origin.
Objective: Hence, this study aimed to document plants commonly used to treat malaria in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria and validate the
traditional claims using in vivo anti-plasmodial tests.
Methods: Semi-structured questionnaires (70) were used to explore the ethno-botanical practices amongst the traditional healers.
The most common species cited were identified, authenticated and their aqueous extracts were screened for antimalarial activities
using Plasmodium berghei (NK 65 chloroquine sensitive) and chloroquine as the malarial parasite and positive control respectively.
For in vivo anti plasmodial testing, the mice were infected with 1 × 107 parasitized erythrocytes and plant extracts were subsequently
administered orally for suppressive, prophylaxis and curative assays. Percentage parasitemia was estimated by standard microscopy
and haematological parameters were also measured using standard analyser.
Results: Seventy traditional healers from Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria were involved in the study. Forty-three species were recorded with
their local names and parts used in the traditional therapeutic preparations. Ten plants with highest frequency of citation (Cymbopogon
citrates (17.1%), Azadirachta indica (12.9%), Prosopis africana (12.9%), Vernonia amygdalina (11.4%), Khaya grandifoliola (10%),
Terminalia glaucescens (10%), Ziniber officeinale (7.1%), Citrus paradise (7.1%), Parquetina nigrescens (7.1%), Psidium guajava
(7.1%),) were selected and investigated for anti-malaria activities. The aqueous extracts of all the selected plants showed significant
(p<0.05) anti-malaria activities. P. africana bark extract at 200 mg/kg body weight had the highest chemo-suppressive effect (90.02%)
in comparison with other plant extracts and the standard, chloroquine (61.70%) on the 8th day. In addition, the maximum mean
survival time (MST) of 23 days were observed in animals administered with P. africana and chloroquine. The extract of P. africana was
further analysed for possible bioactive components using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). The GC-MS analysis
revealed that the aqueous bark extract of P. africana contained lipid (eight), phytochemical (sixteen) and essential oil (eighteen)
components. The histological analysis of the liver revealed that the extract of P. africana was able to protect the liver against B. bergei
induced damages.
Conclusion: Most of the species tested had some antiplasmodial effects, which to some extent supports their traditional inclusion in
herbal preparations for treatment of malaria. The bioactive components identified may be responsible for the observed antimalarial
activity of P. Africana extract.