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Cyclooxygenase | Peer Reviewed Journals
Enzyme Engineering

Enzyme Engineering
Open Access

ISSN: ISSN: 2329-6674

65 3158 1626

Cyclooxygenase

Cyclooxygenase (COX), officially known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), is an enzyme (specifically, a family of isozymes, that is responsible for formation of prostanoids, including thromboxane and prostaglandins such as prostacyclin, from arachidonic acid. A member of the animal-type heme peroxidase family, it is also known as prostaglandin G/H synthase. The specific reaction catalyzed is the conversion from arachidonic acid to Prostaglandin H2, via a short-living Prostaglandin G2 intermediate Pharmaceutical inhibition of COX can provide relief from the symptoms of inflammation and pain. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin and ibuprofen, exert their effects through inhibition of COX. Those that are specific to the COX-2 isozyme are called COX-2 inhibitors. The active metabolite (AM404) of paracetamol believed to provide most or all of its analgesic effects is a COX inhibitor, and this is believed to provide part of its effect

In medicine, the root symbol "COX" is encountered more often than "PTGS". In genetics, "PTGS" is officially used for this family of genes and proteins because the root symbol "COX" was already used for the cytochrome c oxidase family. Thus, the two isozymes found in humans, PTGS1 and PTGS2, are frequently called COX-1 and COX-2 in medical literature. The names "prostaglandin synthase (PHS)", "prostaglandin synthetase (PHS)", and "prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthetase (PES)" are older terms still sometimes used to refer to COX.

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