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Keywords: University students; Self-esteem; Emotional intelligence
RSS: Rosernberg Self-Esteem Scale; EIS: Emotional Intelligence Scale; EI: Emotional Intelligence
Emotional intelligence has become interesting topic of psychology and there have been done several studies on emotional intelligence . Mayer and Salovey introduced emotional intelligence in 1990 and for them emotional intelligence refers to the mental ability of individuals to reason with emotions to enhance thought while promoting intellectual and emotional growth. Many researchers have found individual differences in emotional intelligence . The focus of these studies is with the study of emotional abilities as forecasters of psychological well-being, health and social functioning .
EI can be defined as the ability to correctly understand, evaluate and communicate emotions . Individuals who can comprehend and direct their emotions are able to generally maintain a better view of life and go through better psychological well-being as compared to those who can’t .
The emotional intelligence is consider a subject that attempts to explain, understand and interprets the individuals feeling, pleasures and ability status . The emotional intelligence has also been defined as an ability to comprehend the emotions in order for evaluating thoughts, manners and to put them in a way that makes emotion and intelligent growth and maturity .
The concept of emotional intelligence gives a new strength to the individual’s intelligence, which is considering a deliberate rivalry (personal performance), on the other hand the recognition intelligence is a strategic ability (long term capability). The emotional intelligence makes it able to forecast the attainment because it involves how individuals apply knowledge in a direct success. Emotional intelligence is a type of Social intelligence which is a predictor in special areas such as educational and job performances. In the other word, it has an ability to assure feelings and pleasures by one and others .
Positive emotional intelligence is considering a strong predictor of better psychological adjustment and high self-esteem, whereas negative or low emotional intelligence is significantly related to depression, harmful and distressing behavior . Many researchers have found that there exist relationship between emotional intelligence and mental health of individuals. Higher emotional intelligence lead to positive quality of life and low emotional intelligence tend to develop psychopathology among individuals.
Several studies have proved that sad mood can be contributed to low level of EI [9,10]. It is also found that people with high emotional intelligent have ability to mend their pessimist thing and mood state .
Emotional intelligence has been studies in relation to other mental health variables and it has revealed EI is significantly correlated to higher levels of self-esteem and positive mood among individuals .
Ahmad et al.  did a quantitative study with the sample of 160 students with snowball sampling framework to find out gender differences in EI. Their study reveals that males are more emotionally intelligent than females.
Research has explored that females tend to be more emotional and warm in relationships than males, so they are consider more emotionally intelligence as compared to males. Society play important role in making women more emotionally intelligent [14,15]. Moreover, higher emotional intelligence among girls can also be described in terms of their personality characteristics . Girls are expected to be more warning, emphatic and social and they are reared in the ways which make them more emotionally intelligent.
Mehmood et al.  conducted a quantitative study to find out relationship between emotional intelligence and psychological wellbeing on the sample of 182 adolescents. Results of their study showed that emotional intelligence is positively related to self-esteem and negatively related to depression among adolescents.
Sameer conducted a survey to find out the relationship between Self-Esteem and EI among B.Ed. trainees of Tsunami affected coastal belt on the sample of 92 B.Ed. trainees. His study demonstrated that there is a good amount of self-esteem and emotional intelligence among B.Ed. trainees of Tsunami affected coastal belt of Alappey district. His study also found that age and marital status play only little role in emotional intelligence.
Self-esteem is considering as an emotional response a general feeling about the self that may be more or less positive. Biabangard  defined Self-esteem as a general personality trait; and a personal judgment of worthiness.
Self-esteem can be defined as a value that has information within self–imagination of a person and it formed by the person’s beliefs about all attributes, aspects and characteristics within him .
Several researches have proved that there exist a positive correlation between the emotional intelligence and self-esteem . Other studies have also showed the similar results that there is a positive correlation between self-esteem with marital satisfaction among women in Isfahan city .
Individuals with high self-esteem have positive perceptions about their self. They are more capable and feel mentally healthier as compare to those who have poor and low self-esteem. Individual’s self-evaluation is based on their own perceptions about their own self and opinion of others also play important role .
It was explored that people have their own ways for interpreting their achievement and failures . People who have high level of selfesteem perceive things more positively and they rationalized things as compared to those people who have low self-esteem .
Low emotional intelligence results in the interpersonal relational difficulties, low self-esteem, poor impulse control, loneliness, suicidal thoughts, drug, stress, depression, anxiety, aggressive behaviors and alcohol usage . Further studies explored the relationship between emotional intelligence and other psychological, social and physical aspects and found that low emotional intelligence results in malfunctioning in the psychological, social and physical aspects of human life . Past research has proved that self-esteem is a vital indicator to develop high emotional intelligence among students .
Rey et al. , conducted a study on the Perceived emotional intelligence, self-esteem and life satisfaction among adolescents sample of 316 Spanish adolescents (179 females and 137 males), age ranging from 14 to 18. Their study showed that perceived emotional dimensions, particularly mood clarity and repair, showed positive relationship with life satisfaction and self-esteem was also positively related with adolescent’s satisfaction with life. Their study found that adolescents who have good mood clarity and emotional repair are more likely feel positive affect in the self-evaluative process and they experience more self-worth which leads to greater satisfaction with life.
Tosang et al. , conducted a quantitative study for examining the relationships between self-esteem with Emotional Intelligence and marital satisfaction among women in Karaj in Iran. Study was done with the sample of 100 women with simple random sampling framework. They found that there exist positive relationship between the self-esteem with emotional intelligence and marital satisfaction among women in Karaj in Iran.
Low self-esteem leads to emotional upheavals and thereby to cruelty or crimes . Kail  explored that children with high self-esteem, judge them favourably and feel optimistically about themselves.
Jain et al.  conducted a study using mixed method research design with the sample size of 150 including 77 females and 73 males. Their age range fall within 18-23 years of age and sample was collected from educational institutes of India. The results of their study showed no gender difference among males and females on self-esteem.
Tajeddini  did a comparative study with the sample of 400 students including 200 girls and 200 boys. The findings of the study reveal no gender differences among boys and girls in emotional intelligence and self-esteem.
The purpose of the present study is to explore the Relationship between Self Esteem and emotional intelligence. Chester found that there is positive and significant relationship between emotional intelligence and self-esteem.
There is no particular study done on the relationship between self-esteem and emotional intelligence among university students in Pakistan but there are fewer studies conducted in other countries that show positive Relationship between self-esteem and emotional intelligence among university students. The current study aims to find out relationship between self-esteem and emotional intelligence in Pakistani context. The researcher also intended to find the gender differences in self-esteem and emotional intelligence among university students.
Present study is an important and valuable addition in growing body of previous exiting literature on self-esteem and emotional intelligence among university students. It explain the relationship between emotional intelligence and self-esteem and reveals individual who are more emotionally intelligent have a positive sense of self-worth and have high self-esteem. Individual who are not emotionally intelligent can have low self-esteem which is the predictor of many psychological problems. Population of the study was university students due to the fact that students during their academic career face many problems due to their emotional instability and low sense of self-worth.
• To investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and self-esteem.
• To investigate self-esteem in university students.
• To investigate emotional intelligence among university students.
• To investigate gender difference in self-esteem and emotional intelligence among university students.
• There is positive relationship between self-esteem and emotional intelligence among university students.
• Females are more Emotionally Intelligent than males.
• There does not exist gender differences in self-esteem among Pakistani University students.
The emotional intelligence refers to ability to understand and comprehend the emotions and feelings for assessing thoughts and behaviours and to put them in a ways that make emotion and intelligent mature and healthy .
Self-esteem can be describe as a value that process information within self-imagination of individual and it caused by an individual’s beliefs about all attributes and characteristics within him or her .
The sample of the present study consisted of 250 university students consisting of 100 boys and 150 girls. Sample was collected from Foundation University Rawalpindi Campus, Islamic International University Rawalpindi, Preston University and Fatima Jinnah Women University through convenient sampling. Age range of sample was within 20-30. Only willing participants were selected for the study.
Demographic sheet was design to obtain information about participants. Demographic sheet includes name, age, gender, birth order, monthly income and head of the family.
Informed constant was design to get permission from the participants about their participation in the study. Participants were debriefed about the study and they were assured about confidentially issues.
Rosenberg self-esteem scale
Self-esteem among university students was measured by using Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Rosenberg self-esteem scale is 10-item scales that measures global self-worth by measuring both positive and negative feelings about the self. Rosenberg self-esteem scale is unidimensional. All items are answered using a 4-point Likert scale format ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree.
Emotional intelligence scale
Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS: ) was used to measure emotional intelligence among university students. WLEIS consists of 16 items and gives individuals’ knowledge about their own emotional abilities rather than their actual capacities. Specifically, the WLEIS is a measure of beliefs concerning self-emotional appraisal (SEA) (e.g. “I have a good sense of why I have certain feelings most of the time”), others’ emotional appraisal (OEA) (e.g. “I always know my friends’ emotions from their behavior”), regulation of emotion (ROE) (e.g. “I always set goals for myself and then try my best to achieve them”), and use of emotion (UOE) (e.g. “I am able to control my temper and handle difficulties rationally”).
WLEIS is a seven point Likert-type scale ranging from one (strongly disagree) to seven (strongly agree). Psychometric properties (i.e., reliability, factorial, convergent and predictive validity) of the WLEIS suggests that this scale is reliable and valid self-report measure of the ability to monitor and manage emotions .
Sample was collected from Foundation University Rawalpindi Campus, Islamic International University Rawalpindi, Preston University and Fatima Jinnah Women University. Researchers got permission from authorities of concerned institutions. Participants were briefed about the purpose of the current study. They were assured of the confidentiality of the information that they were going to provide as it would only be used for research purpose. Informed consent was taken through form the participants. They were instructed to fill the questionnaires with great care and not to omit any of the items in the questionnaires. Data was collected in 6 weeks.
The current study aimed to find out the relationship between emotional intelligence and self-esteem among university students. For this purpose data was analyzed through statistical package of social sciences (SPSS) 16V.
The Table 1 shows demographic analyses of university students. Table shows that 100 (40%) boys and 15 (60%) girls participated in the study. 98 (39%) of the participants were from the age range of 20-24 and 152 (61%) of the participants were from the age range of 25-30. Marital status analyses shows that 35 (14%) of the participants were married and 215 (86%) of the participants were single. Birth order analyses shows that 76 (30%) of the participants were first born, 54 (22%) were middle and 120 (48%) of the participants were youngest in their siblings.
Table 2 shows that the cronbach reliability of Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS) that is 0.89 and cronbach reliability of Rosenberg Self Esteem Sacle (RSS) that is 0.78. According to reliability outcome in our study it shows that both are reliable scales to be use in research studies.
Table 3 shows that there exist strong positive relationship between emotional intelligence and self-esteem among university students. Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between emotional intelligence and self-esteem among university students. The person correlation for EIS and RSS was found 0.82*** which indicates that both variables are highly positively correlated.
Table 1:Frequencies (f) and percentages (%) values of demographic variables in term of age, gender, education, marital status, father and mother’s occupation and birth order (N=250).
|No. of Items
Note: EIS Emotional Intelligence Scale. RSS Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale.
Table 2: Reliability Analysis of Measures (N=250). Note:EIS Emotional Intelligence Scale. RSS Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale.
|EIS sum Pearson correlation
|RSS sum Pearson Correlation
* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed)
Table 3: Pearson correlation between emotional intelligence scale and rosenberg self esteem scale (N=250).
Note: EIS=Emotional Intelligence Scale
Table 4: Mean difference between females and males in emotional intelligence scale.
Note: RSS=Rosernberg Self-esteem Scale
Table 5: Mean difference between females and males in Rosenberg self-esteem Scale.
Results from the Table 4 shows that there exist significant gender difference between male and female on emotional intelligence. Females score (M=64.5, S.D=4.6) and males score (M=47.4, S.D=2.8). Table 4 shows that these differences are highly statistically significant as mean emotional intelligence was found to be higher in females.
Table 5 shows gender differences among university students on self-esteem. Table shows that there does not exist significant gender difference in self-esteem among university students as females score (M=84.7, S.D=84.1) and males score (M=84.01, S.D=13.5). These differences are not statistically significant as p value is greater than .05.
The present research was conducted to explore relationship between Emotional intelligence and self-esteem. Furthermore the research was intended to assess the gender effect on Emotional intelligence and self-esteem. Emotional intelligence among university students was measured by using Wong and law scale of emotional intelligence and for assessing self-esteem among university students Rosenberg scale for self-esteem was used.
The present study consisted on the sample of (N=250) University students including both boys and girls. The sample was selected from Rawalpindi and Islamabad universities. Sample was selected by using convenient sampling technique. The participants ranged in between 15 and 26 years of age were selected for the study.
The hypothesis was developed prior to study based on the past research. It was hypothesized that there will be positive Correlation between Emotional Intelligence and self-esteem among university students. Results of our study supported our hypotheses and showed that there exist strong positive relationship between self-esteem and emotional intelligence among university students. Chester also studies that there exist positive relationship between emotional intelligence and self-esteem academic success, and ultimate success in life.
Davis  explored that low self-esteem leads to emotional tumult which make individuals more prone to crimes. Kail  showed that children with high self-esteem judge themselves favourably and feel optimistically about themselves. The results of Khanjani et al. study , the role of exciting intelligence and demographic factors in self-esteem and social, family, exciting and physical compatibility of students in Tabriz showed that there is a positive correlation between the emotional intelligence and all five elements of self-esteem . The results of Syavorchi et al. study also showed that there is a positive correlation between the emotional intelligence and all five elements of self-esteem.
Our results are in line with the study of [32,33] Hasanvand, et al.  which showed that there is a positive correlation between the emotional intelligence and all five elements of self-esteem [19,32]. Yadalijamaloye et al.  also proved that there is a positive correlation between self-esteem with marital satisfaction among women in Isfahan city .
Many researchers explored that emotional intelligence have significant power on an individual’s personality aspects. Self-esteem and mood are considering major factors of emotional well-being of an individual [34-36].
Secondly we hypothesized that there exist gender difference in emotional intelligence university students. Results of our study proved that there exist significant gender differences in emotional intelligence among university students. Our study proved that females are more emotionally intelligence as compared to males. Our findings are in line with the study of Eisenberg , who proved that women are considered more kind and more emotionally responsive as compared to men. The tendency of women to demonstrate higher level of emotional intelligence as compared to men has been assessed in many ways including how people perceive, utilize, recognize and manage their emotions . Many researchers have explored that women has natural tendency to recognize and handle their emotions and feelings to adjust themselves in any kind of social environment. Numerous studies have been explored that women score higher on measures of emotional intelligence as compared to men [39-45]. One possible reason for scoring females high on emotional intelligent is that women in our societies are socialized in a ways that make them more emotionally intelligent like they are socialized not to directly express their anger and handle all the problems with calm attitude. In our cultures women mostly take the responsibilities of households and stay at home while men have the responsibility to earn so men have more power in terms because women are financially dependent on them so women are raised in a ways that teach them how to behave and live in male dominating societies.
We hypothesized that there does not exist gender differences in self-esteem among university students. Results of our study proved our hypotheses as no difference between females and males were reported with regard to self-esteem among Pakistani university students. Past research has given contradictory findings about gender differences in self-esteem. Many researchers have reported higher level self-esteem for men [33,46-48] where as our finding are in line with the study of Quatman et al.  who reported no significant gender differences in self-esteem. Many other researchers have found no significant gender differences in self-esteem [50-54].
One possible explanation for having no gender differences in selfesteem among university students is that now Pakistani girls are being involved in different jobs and occupations. Now females are getting more opportunities for education, job and independence. It should also be notice that population of the study include only university students who are getting education whereas in Pakistan literacy rate among female is low so there may be different case for uneducated females with regard to their self-esteem.
The study was conducted to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence and self-esteem among university students. This study can be very useful in following ways.
• As it has been proved in the study that emotional intelligence is positively related with self-esteem among university students. Further researcher can consider its finding for future studies.
• Interventions can be made to increase the self-esteem of students which will have positive effects on their emotional intelligence.
• Research has high significance in educational and job environment as students and workers can benefit from the finding that demonstrate that high emotional intelligent leads to high self-esteem so people can get rid the problems with their self by behaving in a more emotionally mature ways this in turns will increase the academic achievements and work productivity.
• Study findings can be implemented in counselling settings. Clients can be made aware that how low self-esteem can contribute to their psychological problems and how becoming more emotional intelligent can overcome their psychological issues.
The study has following limitations:
• Sample size is not large enough to generalized finding on the whole population of university students.
• Sample was selected from only Rawalpindi and Islamabad universities. So sample is not the representative of all Pakistani university students.
• Although researcher tried her level best to control all the exogenous variables but some exogenous variables are very difficult to control like mood and mental states which may affect results of the study.
• Further studies on emotional intelligence and self-esteem can include other variables like family and school environment etc.
• Population of the study include only university students. Next level studies can be done by having urban sample as well where literacy rate is very low.