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Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals

Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
Open Access

ISSN: 1948-5964

Editorial - (2020)

Progression in Hepatitis

Lisa Negus*
 
*Correspondence: Lisa Negus, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Rouen University Hospital, 76000 Rouen, France, Email:

Author info »

Introduction

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver tissue. Mostly hepatitis has no symptoms. But rarely people may develop yellow colored discoloration of skin and there may be occurrence of white colored eyes. Hepatitis which can be cured in six months or less can be called as acute hepatitis. If it persists for more than six months, it leads to scarring of liver tissue, liver failure or even may lead to liver cancer.

Hepatitis is caused due to virus such as Hepatitis A, B, C, D and E. It can also be called as autoimmune disease when body releases antibodies against our liver tissue. Autoimmune hepatitis can be occurred due to medications such as alcohol, drugs and toxins.

Causes of Transmission

Hepatitis A is an infection caused due to Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) which is usually transmitted through consumption of contaminated food and water from an infected person. Hepatitis B is caused due to Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) which is through contact of infectious body fluids like semen, blood, vaginal secretions, drug use, sharing razors of an infected person [1-5] .

Hepatitis C is caused due to Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) which is a bloodborne disease transmitted through injection drug use and sexual contact. Hepatitis D is caused due to Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) which can be transmitted through infected blood and direct contact. This is often considered as most dreadful disease. Hepatitis E is caused due to Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) which is often caused due to poor sanitation and consumption of contaminated water.

Causes and Symptoms

Hepatitis can also be noninfectious. The causes of noninfectious hepatitis include: alcohol, autoimmune system response and other toxins. Due to excessive alcohol consumption liver gets damaged and also results in inflammation. The cells of liver are directly damaged due to alcohol and this leads to cirrhosis, a thickening and scarring of the liver and liver failure.

Sometimes, our body’s immune system mistakes liver as a harmful object and attacks it. This may lead to inflammation which can be mild to severe. These symptoms are more common in women. Over dose of medications and poisoning were the toxins which can cause liver damage. Signs and symptoms of acute hepatitis appear immediately. They include: fatigue, dark urine, pale stool and abdominal pain, loss of appetite, flu-like symptoms, unexplained weight loss and yellow skin and eyes, which may be signs of jaundice.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosis includes: History and physical exam, liver function tests, ultrasound, liver biopsy and other blood tests. As it is a short-term illness, Hepatitis A usually doesn’t require treatment. Bed rest may be recommended if symptoms persist more time. Chronic hepatitis B is treated with antiviral medications. Usually it doesn’t require treatment. Treatment for chronic hepatitis B requires regular medical evaluations and monitoring to determine whether the virus is responding to treatment or not.

References

  1. Ward JW, Hinman AR. What is needed to eliminate Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus as global health threats. Gastroenterol. 2019;156:297-310.
  2. Talaat M, El-Sayed N, Kandeel A, Azab MA, Afifi S, Youssef FG, et al. Sentinel surveillance for patients with acute hepatitis in Egypt 2001-04. East Mediterr Health J. 2010;16:2.
  3. Baumert TF, Thimme R, Von-Weizs├Ącker F. Pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus infection. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:82-90.
  4. Martinot-Peignoux M, Lapalus M, Asselah T. HBsAg quantification: Useful for monitoring natural history and treatment outcome. Liver Int. 2014;34(1):97-107.
  5. Moucari R, Mackiewicz V, Lada O. Early serum HBsAg drop: A strong predictor of sustained virological response to pegylated interferon alfa- 2a in HbeAgnegative patients. Hepatol. 2009;49:1151-1157.

Author Info

Lisa Negus*
 
Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Rouen University Hospital, 76000 Rouen, France
 

Citation: Negus L (2020) Progression in Hepatitis. J Antivir Antiretrovir. S8: e001.

Received: 02-Nov-2020 Accepted: 18-Nov-2020 Published: 25-Nov-2020 , DOI: 10.35248/1948-5964.20.S8.e001

Copyright: © 2020 Negus L. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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